ANIMAL NUTRITION1. Identify types of feed. 2. Identify types of feeding materials and equipment.
Introduction Nutrition refers to the art and science of feeding animals. Food nutrients are called nutrients. Different types of feeds contain different types of nutrients.
9.1 Types of Feeds Generally feeds may be classified into:
(d) Supplements and additives.
animal nutrition nutrition refers back to the art and technological know-how of feeding animals.
meals vitamins are called nutrients. exclusive kinds of feeds carries different vitamins. kinds of feeds typically feeds can be labeled into:
(a) concentrates (b) succulents (c) roughages (d) supplements and components.
1. concentrates those are made up of: 1. cereals including maize, rice, millet, sorghum, and so on. those also are known as basal feeds or energy concentrates. 2. leguminous seeds along with groundnut cake, soya beans cake, and others consisting of palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake, these are plant protein concentrates. three. fish meal and blood meal. those are animal protein concentrates. concentrates are easily digested by way of farm animals. succulent feeds those include:
1. roots and tubers consisting of yam cassava, coco-yam, and so forth
2. vegetables such as water leaf and shoko(inexperienced vegetable)
3. forages together with pasture grasses
4. silage made from green clean grass five. cane molasses specifically from sugar cane succulent feeds are very high in water and are without difficulty digested by means of animals. most green vegetation may be used as succulent feeds while they may be younger.
3. roughage those include dry grasses which normally add bulk to animal feeds. examples are hay, straw. hay: that is grass cut, dried and preserved for animal destiny use.
4. dietary supplements and additives feed dietary supplements are added to the main feed to deliver one or greater nutrients which might be lacking inside the predominant feed. the following ought to function feed dietary supplements
: 1. cotton seed cake 2. soya bean meal three. groundnut cake 4. fish meal 5. bone meal 6. egg shell meal 7. oyster shell meal eight. salt-licks 9. limestone 10. vitamins. the feed additives consist of:
1. antibiotics 2. amino acids 3. hormones and so forth. these help to stabilize the feeds as well as enhance at the pleasant and storability of the feeds. nine.2 feed nutrients many factors in varying combinations make up feed nutrients. these elements consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, flourine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and chromium. primarily based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal feeds can be categorized into six groups, viz: 1. carbohydrates supplying power, e.g cereals, roots and tubers, and so on
needed for growth and repair of worn out tissues, e.g legumes such as soya bean, cotton seed, groundnut cakes, and many others 3. fats offering electricity and retaining the frame temperature under control e.g. milk, coconuts, tubers, and so forth. 4. minerals they assist to carry out important body feature. examples are: calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so forth. 5. vitamins they help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins a, b, c, d, e and k 6. water this is a constituent of frame fluid. it allows to everyday frame temperature, lubricate joints, transport body substances and breakdown (digestions) of food. 9.3 forms of ration rations are categorized consistent with the reason they serve within the animals body. they include in: 1. maintenance ration this is the meals given to animals to keep their stay - weight constant. the ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to hold on its metabolic activities like respiratory, digestion, blood flow complement and sound asleep ration.
2. balanced ration ration supplied over and above that wished for protection purposes. the ration is mainly formulated to of the following functions: replica, work, fattening and so forth. instance is layers mash in hen. three. balanced ration this is the ration that consists of all of the vital nutrients wanted by using the body in the perfect share. the composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fat, minerals, vitamins well as water.
malnutrition results whilst a ration does not provide all of the critical meals nutrients in the proper proportion. that is each in exceptional and amount. this could result if the meals in the animal may be very low in calorific cost and as a end result most effective little strength is furnished. this circumstance is referred to as marasmus. as an alternative the foot may be very rich in one nutrients along with carbohydrate and and bad in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM
77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
115. MAMMARY GLAND
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION
127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
133. PROTEIN FATS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
153. FUNGAL DISEASES
154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
malnutrition, as in flawed feeding, effects in vitamins deficiency illnesses consisting of rickets (negative formation of limbs) and ketosis (low stage of blood glucose). malnutrition may lead to:
(i) retarded boom within the a
(ii) low manufacturing
(iii) bodily deformities
(v) demise. please if you find this contents useful
These are made up of:
1. Cereals such as maize, rice, millet, sorghum, etc. These are also referred to as basal feeds or energy concentrates. 2. Leguminous seeds such as groundnut cake, soya beans cake, and others such as palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake. These are plant protein concentrates.
3. Fish meal and blood meal.
These are animal protein concentrates.
Concentrates are easily digested by farm animals. Succulent Feeds These consist of:
1. Roots and tubers such as yam cassava, cocoyam, etc
2. Vegetables such as water leaf and shoko
3. forages such as pasture grasses
4. silage made from green fresh grass
5. Cane molasses mainly from sugar cane Succulent feed are very high in water and are easily digested by animals.
Most green crops can be used as succulent feeds when they are young.
These consist of dry grasses which usually add bulk to animal feeds.
Examples are Hay, Straw. Hay: This is grass cut. dried and preserved for animals future use.
D. Supplements and Additives Feed
supplements are added to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients which might be lacking in the main feed. The following could serve as feed supplements:
1. Cotton seed cake
2. Soya bean meal
3. Groundnut cake
4. Fish meal
5. Bone meal
6. Egg shell meal
7. Oyster shell meal
1. Antibiotics 2. Amino acids 3. Hormones and so on.
These help to stabilize the feeds as well as improve on the quality and storability of the feeds.
9.2 Feed Nutrients
Many elements in varying combinations make up feed nutrients. These elements include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, flourine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and caromium.
Based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal feeds can be classified into six groups, viz:
1. Carbohydrates Supplying energy, e.g cereals, roots and tubers, etc
2. Proteins Needed for growth and repair of worn out tissues, e.g legumes such as soya bean, cotton seed, groundnut cakes, etc
3. Fats Supplying energy and keeping the body temperature under control e.g. milk, coconuts, tubers, etc.
4. Minerals They helo to carry out vital body function. Examples are: calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so on.
They help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins A, B,C,D, E and K
This is a constituent of body fluid. It helps to regular body temperature, lubricate joints, transport body materials and breakdown (digestions) of food.
Types of Ration
Rations are classified according to the purpose they serve in the animals body. They include in:
1. Maintenance Ration
This is the food given to animals to keep their live - weight constant. The ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to carry on its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood circulation compliment and sleeping ration.
2. Balanced Ration
Ration supplied over and above that needed for maintenance purposes. The ration is specially formulated to of the following purposes: reproduction, work, fattening and so on. Example is layers mash in poultry.
3. Balanced Ration This is the ration that contains all the essential nutrients needed by the body in the correct proportion.
The composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins well as water. Malnutrition: Malnutrition results when a ration does not provide all the essential food nutrients in the correct proportion. That is both in quality and quantity. This could result if the food In the animal is very low in calorific value and as a result only little energy is supplied.
This condition is called marasmus. Alternatively the foot may be very rich in one nutrients such as carbohydrate and and poor in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.
Malnutritionas in improper feeding, results in nutrients deficiency diseases such as
rickets- (poor formation of limbs) and
ketosis -(low level of blood glucose)
Malnutrition may lead to:
(i) retarded growth in the a
(ii) low production
(iii) physical deformities
(iv) ill-health (v) death. 9.4
Feeding Equipment for Animals
1. Feeding Troughs DIAGRAM Figure 2.9. la:
Wooden Feeding Trough DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.1 b:
Aluminum Feeding Trough Prepared feeds are put inside for the animal
2. Water Troughs DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.2a: Plastic Water Trough used for Chicks DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.2b: 4 ½ litres water trough made of aluminum used by older birds,
STUDY QUESTIONS 1. List three main types of feeds ad give two examples of each.
2. Classify animal feeds based on the nutrients they supply
3. Explain the following terms: i. Maintenance ration ii. Production ration
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1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
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