Importance of PigsPigs are very important farm animals because they provide the following products:
(a) Pork: The meat of pigs with thick layer of fat.
(b) Bacon: salted or smoked dry meat from the back or sides of a pig.
(c) Lard: fats from pig, used for various industrial purposes as well as domestic cooking.
(d) Bristles: hairs from pigs used in making brushes which are used fine artists.
(e) Pigs also provide source of income to the farmers.
(b) Some common terms used in Piggery
1. Boar: Adult male pig
2. Sow: Adult female pig
3. Gilt: a young sow which is not yet an adult
4. Piglei: young pigs of either sex
5. Litter: all the newly born young ones of a pig
6. Hog: castrated male pig
7. Farrowing; the process of giving birth to young ones by sows
8. Lard: fats from pigs
9. Ham: the upper part of a pjgs leg.
10. Pork: the meat of a pig.
Breeds of PigsThe commonest local breed of pig is the local West African This is small in si/e and can be found in muddy areas of South Nigeria.
However, the temperate breeds of pigs do better in the trojf than the local types. These imported breeds include:
(a) Large white
(b) Land race
(d) Large black
(e) Poland China
(g) Tain worth
(h) Chester white
(d) Pig Management
(i) Conditions for Keeping Temperate Breeds of Pig in Tropics: Pigs as a whole are non- sweating animals, therefore they require special conditions for management. They do ben a temperature of 16"C. Therefore, they require cool condition As most pigs are pigmented. shades should be made available the lards.
Wherever pigs are kept, there should be adequate water surf in the form of a wallow or sprinkling system, and a clean surf for drinking.
In the Southern part of Nigeria, the pigs are preferably managed, in-doors and the buildings screened from flies. Most outdoors are liable in worm And tsetse-fly infestation.
Pigs prefer to lie on dry surface when sleeping, so drainage in Pens is essential. The pens must be scrubbed daily.
This helps to check internal parasites. Dry grasses spread on the floor of the pens every evening am morning.
(ii) Housing: An ideal Pigs house is a building containing pens of which six are for farrowing and suckling, out hoar and the remaining seven for the fatteners and growers.
For the purposes of management, pigs can be subdivided into:
1. Piglets (young ones still suckling)
2. Weaners (Piglets that have stopped suckling)
4. Boars (adult males used for breeding)
5. Sows (adult females used for breeding).
The walls of the pig pens are usually low not exceeding 1 metre high. Pigs are very destructive animals and can easily eat up ain floor made of weak concrete. The mixture should therefore be such that can withstand their destructive activities. The floor also should be rough to avoid slipping off. A Pig's house must contain the pen proper, and a run for sun light. The whole building should be screened against Hies. This is very necessary in humid areas where tse-tse flie are very many.
The feeding troughs and waterers are also made of good concrete mixture. each pig is allowed 25-30 cm of feeding space.
(iii) Farrowing Pens: These contain farrowing or guard rails 20 cm horn the wafls and 30 cm high. These can be made of 5cm water pipes or 7 ½ cm hard wood. The rails provide an area where the piglets can be pushed into after birth without the danger of the sow lying on them.
(iv) Keep Feeding: Creep feeding is the feed of piglets separate Irom their mothers. This is necessary because the nutritional needs of the piglets and that of the dams (mother) are quite different. Leeds suitable for the sow are too coarse and not palatable enough for the piglets. Similarly, the feeds suitable for the piglets are too expensive for the sows. Creep feeds are provided on small ighs and served in such a way that the sou cannot get at them. A creep feeding place can be made by barricading off a corner of the piglets can get in while the dam cannot.
(v) Breeding: All breeding pigs both sows and gilts should have at least 12-14 teats in their udder: Gilts and boars can be bred together until they are four months old to be separated thereafter.
Gilts are served when 7-8 months old while a boar is ready for service when eight months old and can be used for service till it is 5-6 years old. During oestrus (heat period), a sow sheds a large number of ova. For complete fertilization, a sou should be served twice during oestrus, that is at 12th hours and 36lh hour after the on set of oestrus because it lasts 2-5 days. Oestrus recurs at intervals of 21 days. Gestation period is about 114 days.
(vi) Farrowing: The pig keeper must regulate the interval of lifter (groups of young ones) so that the sows do not farrow (give birth) at the same time. He needs a steady inflow of young pigs arriving at about the same rate as he is disposing the mature ones. This is achieved by regulating the time of sen ice of the sows by boars. Under good management, a sow can produce two litters a year. A sow can successfully produce 8 to 14 piglets per litter. An in-pig (pregnant) Sow must be brought into the farrowing pen a week before farrowing. .Litter (e.g. dry grasses) should be provided which she can use to build a nest. The nest should not be swept out while cleaning the pen. During farrowing, it is-necessary for the pig keeper to he around to provide assistance to ensure the safe delivery and survival of the piglets.
(vii) Suckling: The piglets start suckling immediately alter birth. Generally, each piglet keeps its own teat. For this reason, (he number of piglets normally do not exceed the numbers of teals. Excess piglets can be raised by hand (artificially) or foster mother. After three weeks, a creep should be provided to feed the piglets with solid feeds. They are weaned after 5-8 weeks. Weaning should be done gradually by taking the sou out of the pen for increasing periods during the day. This avoids any set-back at weaning. A well developed piglet should be 35% by weight at time of weaning.
The lactation period of a pig is 12weeks; and a sow comes on heat 2-5 days after drying off.
(viii) Castration of Piglets: Male piglets that arc not required for breeding (reproduction) are castrated at the age of six weeks. This is to check indiscriminate mating. Castration of a pig does not affect the odour, flavor, or the tenderness of the meat.
(i) Fattening: In the tropics, pigs are mainly produced for Few are raised for bacon or lard. Pigs are usually fattened groups of the same age and the type of ration required for rattening is different from that required by piglets or sows. Also, (here are changes in rations to suit different fattening stages. A good porker weighing about 60kg should be produced in 5 months. Hogs (castrated males) usually fatten faster than gilts of the same age and breed. Pig ration for different ages are often pit-pared by feed mills. The recommended basic rations are:
(a) Creed feed: 1 – 5 weeks
(b) Weaner's diet: 5-8 weeks
(c) Grower's diet: As from 8 weeks (35-55kg)
(d) Fattener's diet: from 55kg to slaughter weight of 90-100kg.
(e) Breeder's diet: fed to sows and boars used for breeding from weaning age.
(x) Hygiene: Pig's house should be kept clean always to prevent pesi and disease attack. Common parasites of pigs are round norm, ticks, tsetse flies. The common diseases include: swine trvcr. anthrax, swine dysentery, pneumonia, enteritis and others, These can be prevented by maintaining good hygiene in the pig's house.
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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
142. FIELD MACHINES
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
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