POULTRY MANAGEMENTthe word chicken refers to all birds that man has been able to rear through the years. he has decided to rear or cultivate them due to their financial fee to him. such birds encompass:
(a) hen or bird
(d) guinea chicken
(h) recreation birds, e.g. parrot.
what is chicken?
the word chicken refers to all birds that man has been able to rear through the years. he has decided to rear or cultivate them due to their financial fee to him. such birds encompass:
(a) hen or bird
animal husbandry is the artwork of domesticating animals in an in depth form. in word animal husbandry is the farming types wherein the farmer rears especially animals both for own family intake or for business purposes. in this text we shall keep in mind some of the most important animals. in animal husbandry the subsequent types of animals are broadly kept, they are
what is chicken?the word chicken refers to all birds that man has been able to rear through the years. he has decided to rear or cultivate them due to their financial fee to him. such birds encompass:
(a) hen or bird
(d) guinea chicken
(h) recreation birds, e.g. parrot.
importance of chicken:fowl gives the subsequent:
1. money - through the sale of eggs and its meat
2. eggs - supply of protein
three. meat (chicken) - supply of protein
four. feathers - for making excessive quality pillows and mattresses dropping and it's miles very rich in plant vitamins.
five. poultry manure (guano) – this is received from the birds dropping and it's far very rich in plant vitamins
6. sport - some birds which include the parrot and cocks are used for video games.
few phrases associated with hen
cock – grownup male chicken
drake – adult male duck
guinea cock – male guinea fowl
gander - grownup male geese
tom - adult male turkey
fowl - adult female chicken
duck - adult male duck
guinea bird - guinea fowl
goose - grownup geese
turkey chicken - female turkey
chick – a younger chick
duckling – a young duck
guinea chick – a young guinea chick
gosling – a younger ducks
proult – a young turkey
layer - a laying hen
broiler -a meat producing bird
cockerel-younger male chick
pullet- young female chicken
capon-a castrated cock
management of home chick
the distinct breeds of home fowls consist of:
(a) Rhode island purple (r.i.r)
(b) Plymouth rock
(d) white leghorn
(e) brown leghorn
(h) Cornish dark
(i) mild Sussex
(j) white wyandotte
(k) native chick, etc
fowls may be managed for any of the purposed stated underneath:
(i) egg production (layers)
(ii) meat manufacturing (broilers)
(iii) twin motive: in this case, the fowls are breed for both meat and eggs.
however, the management practices for all birds in animal husbandry, whether reared for meat or eggs have a few similarities which incorporates
however no longer restrained to the subsequent:
poultry housing:the dimensions of the house relies upon at the population of the birds. the muse must be made of solid blocks with concrete ground. the wall need to be made of strong blocks with concrete. the wall have to be brief for true ventilation and good enough supply of light. cord mesh must be used to complete the fast partitions upwards to the roofing stage.
in animal husbandry, care ought to be taken in making sure that each one holes are included upwards to the roof. that is to prevent lizards, snakes, rats and wild birds from getting into the house as their presence will disturb the fowls.
the most common types of roofs used in fowl buildings are:
(i) lean-to-roof or shed:
this is illustrated underneath:
on final touch of the constructing, a mini gutter have to be built around the whole fowl building close to the out of doors partitions and this is a superb practice in animal husbandry. Izal or other disinfectants ought to be used with water and poured into this gutter regularly. this is to save you and vermin from getting into the rooster house.
furthermore in animal husbandry, a wider clip ought to be constructed at the entrance of the residence. the attendant in addition to traffic are required to dip their legs inside the disinfected water within the dip before moving into the rooster residence. that is to prevent ailment or germs from being taken into the residence.
systems of fowl control
fowls can be managed underneath any of the subsequent systems:
intensive systems:beneath this device or system, birds are reared continuously inside an inner construction. there are three primary sorts of extensive control:
(i) deep litter system
(ii) battery cage mechanism
(iii) slate or wire floor system.
deep litter gadget:in this gadget a concrete floor is made in the chicken residence and noticed dust or wood shavings are used to cover the floor. feeding and ingesting troughs are organized at appropriate pistes at the floor. in case of laying birds, laying nests have to be supplied on one facet of the floor.
advantages of deep litter machine fowl control
1. it's miles in your price range seeing that minimum equipment are wanted.
2. manufacturing of ammonia from the decomposition of the muddle assist in tin- manipulate of coccidiosis.
three. the birds have sufficient space for exercising.
four. there is simple manage of flies because it within reason dry.
5. the muddle allows to soak up the droppings from the birds thereby lowering the offensive odour.
disadvantages of deep muddle system of chicken control
1. cannibalism may additionally arise
2. illnesses and parasites are without difficulty unfold
three. excessive fee of building the house
four. eggs are typically dirty wherein layers are reared below this system
battery system:battery gadget of chicken control is a type of in depth rooster management system. in this extensive management gadget, cord, cages are used to enclose the birds in a residence, each cage can accommodate to 4 birds relying on the dimensions of the cage.
advantages of battery system of poultry management
1. presents higher lodging
2. elimination of inner parasites because the droppings are accumulated under the cages
3. unwell birds are effortlessly identified i or treatment
four. egg production is better
5. records can without problems he saved
6. eggs are usually very clean or neat.
advantages of battery system of hen control
1. it's miles luxurious to construct the house and purchase the cages.
2. the eggs may destroy if slope of mesh is just too step.
3. there may be high labour cost.
(iii) slate or cord floor machine: that is made raised walls. the birds are saved in the slated or stressed ground. the droppings which can be deposited beneath are accrued for disposal sometimes.
benefits of the slate floor machine of poultry management
1. there is no clutter required
2. there may be control of infection due to the fact birds d droppings.
three. eggs cleaning is wanted.
hazards of the slate or wire gadget of poultry management
1. lower egg production
2. layers are liable to nervousness
three. there may be cannibalism.
2. tremendous or free variety machine
this is the conventional gadget of hen maintaining inside the tropics. in the loose range system, the fowls are allowed to move freely in a wide location. if excessive land is to be had, this device poses no troubles. birds reared under the free variety of substantial machine discover meals for themselves. they're commonly furnished accommodation at night time.
advantages of free range system:
1. the fee of feeding the birds is pretty low.
2. there's no value for housing the birds.
three. the birds can pass approximately freely. they're consequently healthier due to their consistent sporting events.
four. the birds have get admission to to natural meals which includes insects and veggies
disadvantages of free range system
1. there's risk of pests, hawks, snakes, wild animals and thieves.
2. there's threat of twist of fate in view that vehicles can kill the birds.
three. there's low egg production.
four. the birds are commonly small in size as they use their power to move about searching for meals and water.
5. they are able to effortlessly settlement sickness from different birds.
6. statistics are difficult to maintain.
the birds below this are kept in cages, poultry runs product of cord netting. the birds flow approximately inside the runs for the duration of the day to fend for themselves. they come to sleep within the constructing at night or for the duration of negative weather conditions consisting of immoderate heat or rain. see the diagram beneath:
cord fence run
semi-extensive system of rearing birds.
advantages of the system
1. there may be enough area for the birds to move approximately.
2. the birds have access to green veggies
3. the pasture growing in the region will do properly due to the dropping from the birds
four. the birds are protected towards predators which include snakes
disadvantages of the system
1. the fee of creating cord fences is high.
2. birds won't be totally included from predators which include hawks
3. there is hazard of parasite build up and ailment out damage.
(c) control practices: the management practices for fowl production can be dealt with underneath the comply with ing headings:
(i) egg dealing with: fertile eggs are amassed from the breeding liens and looked after out. the faulty ones are removed even as the feasible ones are taken to the incubator for hatching.
(ii) incubation: that is a technique regarding the improvement and hatching of eggs, to provide chicks. the mom fowl commonly incubates her egg obviously by using silting at the eggs. but the range of eggs hatched without delay by means of a chicken below this technique is constrained. as a result massive hatching machines referred to as incubators have been devised to hatch very big numbers of eggs.
all situations in the incubators are thermostatically controlled. the temperature is stored at 38v. relative humidity • 64%. oxygen - 21%. carbon (iv) oxide - 0.5%. the eggs are then grew to become often inside the incubator so that each one aspects arc exposed to the incubator situations and to prevent chicks from sticking to the shells.
candling is completed to identity the infertile eggs. this is executed at the sixth and 18th day of the egg's live in the incubator. candling ensures that every one hatch-able egg are hatched.
the eggs are generally geared up for hatching after 21 days stav within the incubator.
when the chicks were hatched, they're sexed (separation into males and females) earlier than being taken to the brooder house,
(iii) chick brooding: this includes taking care ol the day-old chicks until they're about four weeks and then the management practices could change.
the brooder residence is usually use used to rear day antique chicks
brooding is the method of providing the herbal conditions of the mother chick in artificial manner.
chick drinking and feeding troughs should be properly arrange within the brooder residence. sources of warmth should be supplied to up the room. extra heat need to be averted. the chicks inside the brooder house will tell the farmer whether or not the heat is an excessive amount of or too low.
if the birds cluster collectively across the source of heat then the heat it too low. whilst most of the birds flow a ways away from the source of heat it shows that the temperature is simply too excessive. in both instances, the
farmer ought to regulate the temperature as is necessary.
water and feed have to be furnished to the chicks inside the brooder house (that is, as much as they need).
on the end of 4 weeks, the birds ought to be removed from the the brooder residence and reared underneath the necessary gadget in advance on in this unit. whatever device is used to rear the birds, hygiene, adequate feed and water supply, sickness and pest control should accept precedence.
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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM
77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
115. MAMMARY GLAND
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION
127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
133. PROTEIN FATS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
153. FUNGAL DISEASES
154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES