ANIMAL HUSBANDRYIdentify the various housing requirements of farm animals. 2. Acquire the basic techniques of management of farm animals.
PoultryWhat is Poultry? The word Poultry refers to all birds that man has been able to rear over the years. He has decided to rear or domesticate them because of their economic value to him. Such birds include: (a) fowls or chickens (b) turkey (c) ducks (d) guinea fowl (e) pigeons (f) geese (g) ostriches (h) game birds, e.g. parrot.
Importance of Poultry:Poultry provides the following:
1. Money - through the sale of eggs and its meat
2. Eggs - source of protein
3. Meat (chicken) - source of protein
4. Feathers - for making high quality pillows and mattresses dropping and it is very rich in plant nutrients.
5. Poultry manure (Guano) – this is obtained from the birds dropping and it is very rich in plant nutrients 6. Game - some birds such as the parrot and cocks are used for games.
DIAGRAM Figure 2.10.1: Domestic fowl
Some terms associated with poultryCock – Adult male fowl Drake – Adult male duck Guinea cock – Adult male guinea fowl Gander - Adult male geese Tom - Adult female turkey Hen - Adult male fowl Duck - Adult male duck Guinea hen - Adult female guinea fowl Goose - Adult female geese Turkey hen - Adult female turkey Chick – A young fowl Duckling – A young duck Guinea Chick – A young guinea fowl Gosling – A young geese Proult – A young turkey Laver - A laying hen Broiler - A meat producing bird Cockerel - Young male fowl Pullet - Young female fowl Capon - A castrated cock
Management of Domestic FowlThe different breeds of domestic fowls include:
(a) Rhode Island Red (R.I.R) (b) Phymouth Rock (c) Harco (d) White leghorn (e) Brown leghorn (f) Babcocks (g) Ancina (h) Cornish Dark
(i) Light Sussex (j) White Wyandotte (k) Native fowl, etc Fowls can be managed for any of the purposed stated below: (i) Egg production (Layers) (ii) Meat production (broilers)
(iii) Dual purpose: In this case, the fowls are breed for both meat and eggs. However, the management practices for all birds whether reared for meat or eggs have some similarities.
Housing:The size of the house depends on the population of the birds. The foundation should be made of solid blocks with concrete floor. The wall should be made of solid blocks with concrete floor. The wall should be short for good ventilation and adequate supply of light. Wire mesh should be used to complete the short walls upwards to the roofing level. Care should be taken in ensuring that all holes are covered upwards to the roof. This is to prevent lizards, snakes, rats and wild birds from entering into the house as their presence will disturb the fowls. The commonest types of roofs used in poultry buildings are: (i) Lean-to-Roof or Shed: This is illustrated below:
Gable Roof:Figure 2, 10.3: Gable Roof On completion of the building, a mini gutter (dip) should be constructed around the entire poultry building close to the outside walls. Izal or other disinfectants should be used with water and poured into this gilder regularly. This is to prevent and vermins from entering into the poultry house. Furthermore, a wider clip should be constructed at the entrance of the house. The attendant as well as visitors are required to dip their legs in the disinfected water in the dip before entering into the poultry house. This is to prevent disease or germs from being taken into the house.
Systems of poultry managementFowls can be managed under any of the following systems: 1. Intensive Systems: Under this system, birds are reared continuously inside a building.
There are three basic types of intensive management:(i) Deep litter system (ii) Battery Cage System (iii) Slate or wire poor system.
(i) Deep litter system: In this system a concrete floor is made in the poultry house and saw dust or wood shavings are used to cover the flooi. Feeding and drinking troughs are arranged at appropriate pistes on the floor. In case of laying birds, laying nests should be provided on one side of the floor.
Advantages of this System1. It is economical since minimum equipment are needed. 2. Production 01 ammonia from the decomposition of the litter assist in tin- control of coccidiosis. 3. The birds have enough space for exercise. 4. There is easy control of flies since it is fairly dry. 5. The litter helps to absorb the droppings from the birds thereby reducing the offensive odour.
Disadvantages1. Cannibalism may occur 2. Diseases and parasites are easily spread 3. High cost of constructing the house 4. Eggs are usually dirty where layers are reared under this system
Battery System:In this intensive management system, wire, cages are used to enclose the birds in a house. each cage can accommodate two to four birds depending on the size of the cage.
Advantages1. Provides better accommodation
2. Elimination of internal parasites because the droppings are collected below the cages
3. Sick birds are easily identified I or treatment
4. Egg production is higher
5. Records can easily he kept
6. birds are usually very clean or neat.
Disadvantages1. It is expensive to build the house and buy the cages.
2. The eggs may break if slope of mesh is too step.
3. There is high labour cost.
Slate or wire floor system:This is made raised walls. The birds are kept in the slated or wired floor. The droppings which collect beneath are collected for disposal occasionally.
Advantages of floor wire system1. There is no litter required
2. There is control of infection because birds d droppings.
3. Egg cleaning is needed.
Disadvantages1. Lower egg production
2. Layers are prone to nervousness
3. There mav be cannibalism.
Extensive or Free Range SystemThis is the traditional system of poultry keeping in the tropics. In the system, the fowls are allowed to move neetly in a wide area. If high land is available, this system poses no problems. Birds reared under this system find food for themselves. They are normally provided accommodation at night.
Advantages of free range system:1. The cost of feeding the birds is quite low.
2. There is no cost for housing the birds.
3. The birds can move about freely. They are therefore healthier because of their constant exercises.
4. The birds have access to natural food such as insects and vegetables
Disadvantages1. There is danger of pests, hawks, snakes, wild animals and thieves.
2. There is risk of accident since vehicles can kill the birds.
3. There is low egg production.
4. The birds are normally small in size as they use their energy to move about in search of food and water.
5. They can easily contract disease from other birds.
6. Records are difficult to keep.