WHAT ARE ECOLOGICAL FACTORS


ECOLOGICAL FACTORS

ECOLOGICAL FACTORS are those factors in the environment which can influence living organisms or cause changes in any habitat, be it aquatic or terrestrial

Ecological factors are grouped into two categories.

They are biotic and abiotic factors


What are the biotic factors that affect ecology?

Listed below are the Biotic factors affecting ecosystem
1.

HOW COMPETETION AFFECT ECOLOGY:

competition involves in the interaction between two organisms of the same species or different species in which one outgrows the other and the other die or cannot survive
2.

HOW PARASITISM AFFECT ECOLOGY:

this is a close association between two organisms in which one, called parasite lives on the other called host for survival. The parasite usually benefits from the association while the host suffers and most often dies out
3.

HOW COMMENSALISM AFFECT ECOLOGY:

commensalism is an association between two organisms living together in which only one, the commensal, benefits from the association while the other is neither harmed nor benefits
4.

HOW PREDATION AFFECT ECOLOGY:

predation is a type of association between two organisms in which the predator kills the other called the prey and feeds directly on it
5.

HOW PATHOGENS AFFECT ECOLOGY:

these are micro-organisms which can be either plants or animals in an environment which can cause diseases to plant and animals that eventually leads to their death
6.

HOW MORTALITY RATE AFFECT ECOLOGY:

mortality is the death rate of organisms either plants or animals in an environment. Mortality generally reduces the population of organisms in any habitat
7.

WAYS IN WHICH MIGRATION AFFECT ECOLOGY:

this is the movement of organisms from habitat to another. Immigration then is the movement of organisms from a habitat into a new one while emigration is those moving out. These movement generally have effects on the other organisms inhibiting the same habitat
8.

DISPERSAL AGENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF DISPERSAL AFFECT ECOLOGY:

dispersal is the spreading of new organisms or individual from their parents to new habitat so as to start a new life. Such movement also affects the ecosystem or life in their new area
9.

NATALITY RATE CAN AFFECT ECOLOGY

Natality is the rate of giving birth to new offspring. Natality is generally known the population of the habitat which will eventually lead to some problems within the habitat competing for food or survival
10.

FOOD SUPPLY AFFECT ECOLOGY:

availability of food in an habitat generally lead to increase in population in an habitat
11.

DISEASES:

diseases are known ton decrease the population of organisms in any habitat
12.

PEST:

pest are known to affect the performance of plants in terms of yield and growth and severe cases the plant may die


ABIOTIC FACTOR AFFECTING AN ECOSYSTEM

The abiotic factors affecting an ecosystem includes the following
1.

CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE ECOSYSTEM:

these are temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind, pressure and sunshine
2.

CHEMICAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE ECOSYSTEM:

these are made up of oxygen, carbon dioxide, mineral salts, water and nitrogen
3.

EDAPHIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE ECOSYSTEM:

These consist of soil, its water, chemical and physical composition, its pH, nutrients, profile, structure and texture.
4.

TOPOGRAPHY AFFECTING THE ECOSYSTEM

these are caused as a result of the shape of the earth’s surface, like the effect of rivers, hills, mountains and valleys

ECOLOGICAL FACTORS COMMON TO ALL HABITATS

There are common factors that affect nearly all the habitat, these are as follows

It is worthy of note, that of all these factors, temperature and rainfall determine the major Biomes of the world.

How temperature determines the ecosystem

1. Temperature determine the vegetation of an area
2. Temperature is necessary for the germination of seeds
3. Temperature affects the distribution plants and animals
4. It regulates the activities of major living things
5. Temperature affects evaporation and transpiration, and reduces the performance of plants and animals
6. It affects the wilting field crops
7. Temperature may lead to loss of soil nutrient through volatilization
8. Unfavourable temperature may result in seed dormancy

How rainfall determines the type of habitat found in a place

1. Rainfall; determines season in some places like Nigeria where we have rainy and dry seasons
2. Rainfall determine the vegetation of a place
3. Rainfall determine the distribution of plants and animals
4. Rainfall provides the dwelling place for some organisms like fish
5. Rainfall is necessary for seed germination
6. Rainfall helps to dissolve nutrient in the soil
7. Rainfall is the main source of water to rivers, lakes and seas
8. Plants use water for photosynthesis

Inportance of wind to an habitat

1. Wind also determine seasons in Nigeria
2. Wind helps in the distribution of rainfall
3. Wind aids in the spread of diseases
4. It aids the pollination of plant flowers
5. Wind aids the dispersal of seeds and fruits
6. High velocity wind causes wind erosion
7. Wind is responsible for water current and waves

Importance of sunlight to and habitat

1. Sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis to take place in green plants
2. It affects avapo-transpiration
3. Light affect the productivity of crops
4. Light affects flowering and fruiting plants
5. Light is the ultimate source of energy for all organisms
6. Light affect the activities of animals

Importance of pressure to and habitat

1. The atmospheric pressure decreases as one goes up from the sea level
2. In aquatic environment, pressure increases as one moves down the water
3. Plants and animals have a special level of adaptation to pressure to enable them live or survive
4. Too high or too low pressure will always affects the life and performance of plants and animals
5. Pressure is responsible for movement of winds


how will hydrogen ion concentration affect an habitats

1. pH values ranges from 1 to 14, with pH 1 been very acidic, pH 7 neutral while pH 14 is alkaline
2. living organisms are highly sensitive to pH change4s in the environment
3. too high or too low pH will affect the life of both plants and animals
4. plants and animals are adapted to special pH values
5. most plants strive well in neutral or slightly alkaline while acidic soil supports very little vegetation

ECOLOGICAL FACTORS COMMON TO AQUATIC HABITATS

The following are the factors affecting aquatic habitat
1.

temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind ,pressure, pH and light

have all been explained earlier
2.

What is salinity and its importance in aquatic system or habitat:

salinity is defined as the degree of saltiness or concentration of salt solution in water. Salinity is low in fresh water, high in sea water and moderate ion brackish water
Aquatic organisms need to maintain the osmotic

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