FARM ANIMALSMeaning of farm animals:
Farm animals are the animals that are domesticated by man. The farm animals are kept because they are useful in many ways. Some produce milk(milking machine), meat and eggs used as food.Another name for farm animals is livestock, and this term concerns only domestic animal. Examples of these animals are camels, sheep, goats,
In general, farm animals convert and/or harvest material that is not of much use for
monogastric humans or convert excess grain products into meat, milk, eggs, animal byproducts and wool fiber that are extremely useful to mankind.
Another name for farm animals is livestock, and this term concerns only domestic animal. Examples of these animals are camels, sheep, goats, chicken
Animals have always contributed to human societies by supplying food in the form of meat,
milk, fat, eggs and in some societies, even blood. These products are nutritionally-dense
and the amino acids are in the ratio required by humans including the essential amino acids.
Body covering in the form of wool, leather, pelts, hides, hair and fur have also been
supplied by these animals
Others provide pleasure while some are used as beast of burden or work animals. Examples of farm animals are cattle, pigs, goats, sheep, rabbit and poultry.
CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS
(A) Bases for classifying farm animals The domesticated animals known as farm animals are or can be classified in the following ways
1. Classification according to body morphology of farm animals.
of 2. Classification according to living environment of the farm animal.3. Classification according to the type of stomach.
According to body morphology;on the bases of body morphology of farm animal, farm animals are grouped into three. (a) Mammals: these are farm animals that have back bone. They give birth to young ones alive and the young ones are fed with milk from the mammary gland.
The animals in this group are cold blooded. That is to say that the temperature of the body does not change in relation to its environment. Goat, sheep, rabbit, pigs, cattle and donkeys are some of the domesticated mammals.
(b) Birds: these are the Farm animals that have wings and feathers. They have the ability to fly. They are also warm blooded animals like mammals. These set of animals lay eggs-egg production. Examples are fowl, turkey, duck and geese. (c) Fish: these live are reared in water. It is a cold blooded vertebrate. The temperature of the body of fish changes in relation with its surrounding. The body of most fishes is covered with scales. They have fins for movement in water. Examples of farm animals that live in the water are sharks, catfish, mackerel, tilapia, salmon, sardines,
Some of the details of their scientific classifications are given in Table 2.
Chickens 13,628,000 1,125,000 6,752,000 1,520,000 1,844,000 1,540,000
Cattle 1,330,000 203,500 479,000 297,000 157,000 98,500
Sheep 1,066,000 213,000 417,000 87,000 162,000 7,240
Hogs 956,000 22,000 579,000 58,000 199,000 62,200
Ducks 752,000 15,000 650,000 12,000 59,000 ---
Goats 705,000 183,000 469,000 22,000 18,000 ---
Turkeys 246,000 7,000 13,000 11,000 110,000 283,500
Geese 209,000 11,000 185,000 --- 13,000 ---
Buffalo 169,000 3,150 164,000 1,700 220 ---
120,000 20,000 45,000 23,000 8,750 ---
Camels 20,000 15,000 5,000 --- 11 ---
Animals 4,330,000 652,000 2,158,000 490,000 527,000 168,000
Total Poultry 14,900,000 1,580,000 7,600,000 1,543,000 2,026,000 1,823,500
77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
ACCORDING TO LIVING ENVIRONMENT OR HABITATOn the bases of the living environment or habitat, farm animals could be grouped into two, they are 1. Aquatic 2. Terrestrial animals 1. Aquatic animals: are those farm animals that live in water. They get food and oxygen necessary for survival from the water. They are able to live in water because they are cold blooded animals. Examples are all fish related creatures. 2. Terrestrial animals: these are the farm animals that live on land. The majority of the farm animals are in this category. They are firmly adapted to live on land. They possess legs to move about in search for food. They are Goats, Sheep, cattle and donkeys.
Beef cattle are ruminants and consequently can consume forages including grass which
contains a great deal of cellulose, the world’s most abundant potential feed ingredient. They
can also utilize non-protein nitrogen in the synthesis of animal protein. Forages are not
easily harvested by man and both forages and non-protein nitrogen are not utilizable by
humans. Therefore, these animals convert material that has little value in the human diet to
highly nutritious, well balanced, good tasting protein.
ACCORDING TO TYPE OF STOMACH FARM ANIMALS CAN BE GROUPED INTO TWO ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF STOMACH.They (a) ruminant and (b) non-ruminant animals 1. Ruminant animals: these set of farm animals have complex or four compartment stomach. These are compartments are as follows, rumen, reticulum, Omasum Abomasums which is called the true stomach. These set of farm animals eat mainly grass and chew the cud. Examples are, Goat, cattle and sheep. 2. (b) These have simple stomach like that of man. The food eaten by Non-ruminant animals are chewed in the mouth completely with the help of the teeth before it is swallowed into the stomach. Non-ruminants feed mainly on grain, tubers and tubers. Examples are Rabbit, Pig, poultry and horse. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RUMINANT AND NON-RUMINANT FARM ANIMALS RUMINANTS and NON-RUMINANTS Four compartments
one compartment Very large stomach, it is very small Large, quantity of food consumed, eats very little, Can digest grasses with cellulose
cannot digest grasses easily but foods like
TYPES OF FARM OF ANIMALS1. Poultry 2. Cattle 3. Sheep 4. Goat 5. Pig 6. Rabbit 7. Fish 8. Donkey 10. Horse
POULTRY:poultry is the name used to describe all domesticated birds. They produce meat and eggs used as food. The common types of poultry are chicken/fowl, duck, guinea fowl, turkey and geese. In most countries of the world, chicken seemed the most common type of poultry. Here is a list of the major breeds of chicken, 1. Native dwarf fowl
2. Rhode Island Red 3. Plymouth Rock
The farm animal industry is based on animal nutrition which is influenced by the gastrointestinal tract of the various types of animals involved, and feedstuff can come in a variety
of nutritionally desirable classes. Genetics influences animal breeding and consequently
animals have been modified by selection to fulfill specific needs such as animal
reproduction, lactation, animal behavior and health.
In Nigeria and most other black African countries, the Native Dwarf fowl is mainly kept by farmers in the rural areas. The other types or breeds of chicken are foreign and are reared by modern and big poultry farmers. The types of chicken that are kept for the production of meat only are called Broilers. The types that are kept for the production of eggs are called Layers. The dual purpose chicken is meant to produce both egg and meat. Adult male chicken is called-----, Adult female chicken is called Hen The young one of both sexes is called chick A castrated male chicken is called Capon Those types reared for the production of hatch-able eggs are called parent stock.
Cattle belong to the family of Bovidae. The cattle is referred to as roofed animal because it has two enlarged toes. A Cattle with hump is known as Zebu cattle. Those without hump are called humpless cattle. A Cattle is reared by the famer for meat, hides and milk. Therefore cattle can be grouped according the purpose for they are kept by the farmer. So in the study of Agricultural Science, they are as follows i. Beef Cattle. This is the cattle kept mainly for the production of meat known as beef. Examples of good beef cattle in Nigeria are MUTURU, NDAMA, BORAN, KETEKU and the other foreign breed are ABERDEN ANGUS and BRAHAMN the American Zebu cattle. ii. Dairy Cattle: this is the cattle kept mainly for the production of milk. Examples of good milk or dairy cattle in Nigeria are WHITE FULANI, SOKOTO GUDALI AND BURAJI. We also have breeds like Holstein, Sahiwa, Friesian and Jersey from America. iii. Work Cattle: this type of cattle is used as source of labour for doing farm work such as tilling the soil and carrying farm load. They have lots of strength. Examples are Kanrej from India and Sokoto Gudali in Nigeria iv. Dual purpose Cattle: these are kept mainly for the production of meats and milk. Dual purpose cattle in Nigeria include Shuwa, Biu and Sokoto Gudali. The adult male of cattle is called bull. The adult female cattle is called cow. The young cattle are called calf. The castrated male cattle is called bullock.
BREEDS OF CATTLE IN NIGERIA AND WEST AFRICA.
The breeds of cattle that are native to West Africa include: NDAMA, MUTURU, BIU, BORAN, KETEKU, WHITE-FULANI, RED-BORORO AND SOKOTO GUDALI. BREEDS OF CATTLE BROUGHT TO NIGERIA FROM EUROPE AND OTHER CONTINENTS HOSTIEN FRESIAN, WHITE AND BLACK SWISS, JAMAICA HOPE, SAHIWA, HEREFORD, ABERDEN ANGUS, BRAHAM AND THE RED DEVON. 3. SHEEP: Sheep belongs to the genus Ovidae. The animal is popularly reared in countries with temperate climate such as Australia, Britain, South Africa and New Zealand. It is also a popular animal reared in countries like Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania and a few others. The production of sheep is mainly for their hides/skin, milk and wool. An adult male sheep is called Ram. Adult female is called Ewe. Young of both sexes is called lamb. Castrated male before sexual maturity is called Wether. Castrated male after sexual maturity is called Stag. BREEDS OF SHEEP FOUND IN NIGERIA.
1. The west African dwarf sheep 2. The Yankassa breed 3. Oada
agricultural biology topics
HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
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