AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLES OF GOVERNMENTAgricultural development has been of great concern to many countries of the world. But in the West African region of the world, the development of agriculture has been on the decline because of government policies and interference the agricultural settings.
AGRICULTURAL POLICIES: on this front, agricultural policies
varies from country to country. But in general all such policies has same goal and projected to enhance agricultural production. So the basic agricultural policies including the following
ii. To increase the quality and efficiency of producing the major export crops as demanded in the international market index to meet up foreign exchange.
iii. To provide employment opportunities through the establishment of large farms
iv. To supply the essential raw materials necessary for the development of the local industries
v. To increase the production of livestock products such as meat-protein
vi. To apply mechanization processes in agricultural production
vii. To find lasting solution to the problems of agricultural development through the establishment of research centres.
PROGRAM PLANNING OF GOVERNMENT
After the government has stated its policies towards agricultural development, it then draws up programs that leads to its successful execution.
A plan is therefore define as an organization of goals and the methods to achieving these goals. Some of the major programs initiated by various government includes but not limited to the following
i. Extension services
ii. Loans and credit schemes
iv. Farm settlement schemes
v. Oil palm planting scheme
vi. Operation feed the Nation
vii. Fertilizer application scheme
viii. The green revolution of countries like Nigeria
ix. The River Basin Authority Scheme
x. Agricultural development scheme
Agricultural regulations are rules made by any government in order to control agricultural activities. These regulations are meant for the farmers to adopt and they vary from country to country. Depending on the social-economic ties of the region involved, therefore agricultural development, agricultural reform and agricultural policies are never universal but be that as it may, agricultural laws are mostly aimed at enhancing agricultural productivity. So the basic aim of agricultural development laws and policies includes but not limited to the following
i. To maintain high quality standard of farm produce
ii. To control disease, pests, weeds and erosion
iii. To conserve and protect the natural resource from undue exploitation
For example, it is a criminal offense to trespass or for an unauthorized person to enter forest reserved areas to fell tress. These regulation are aimed at protecting forest and wildlife. This form of agricultural regulation and laws will enhance the systematic exploitation of forest. One of the various agricultural regulation and laws stated that it is an offense to set the forest on fire on no condition. Another agricultural regulation laws and policies states that it is an offense to use chemicals in killing fishes. In a nutshell, all agricultural regulation is geared making the average human life more enjoying.
Agricultural education is an established centers for teaching and learning about agricultural science. Some of the advantages of agricultural education are as follows
i. Agricultural education is an important factor for achieving enlightenment, economic growth and development
ii. Agricultural education deals with the acquisition of knowledge and its application to the solution of human problems
iii. Agricultural education and training provides the farmer with basic suitable skills which can be applied to increase his performance.
iv. Agricultural education improves the efficiency of labour and management
Modern farming requires basic training in order to increase their productive potentials, so that agricultural principles and new techniques can be transferred into practical activity. Some of the aims of agricultural education are as follows
i. To educate farmers in order to increase their productive potentials.
ii. To raise the social status of the farmer and farming as business.
iii. To develop in farmers the sense of responsibility and hard work.
RESEARCH CENTRES IN NIGERIA
In Nigeria, the government has spent huge sums of money in the establishment of research centres across the country where new improved varieties of crops and livestock are produced. These improved varieties of crops are very high yielding species and they usually disease resistant.
Research may be regarded as an advanced stage of study which is aimed at discovering what is hidden. There are two main types of research, they are 1. Basic and 2. Applied research. In addition to these, research is also carried out by government specialized agencies such as these
i. The national cereal research institute. Badeggi
ii. The cocoa research institute of Nigeria. Onigambari-Ibadan
iii. The institute for oil palm research. Benin Edo state
iv. The Nigerian institute for trypanosomiasis research institute Vom near Jos
vi. The Rokupr research institute for Rice. Sierra Leone
Agricultural Extension education is basically an adult education program brought to the rural farmers by extension agents, at their homes. The aims of agricultural extension includes but not limited to the following
i. To bring information to the farmer which can be of utmost usefulness to the him, in form of new development which can be applied to improve agricultural production such as the use of fertilizers, improved breeds of livestock, improved crop variety and the use of pesticide, herbicides and farm mechanization
ii. To instruct farmers on new farming techniques such as the ideal time of planting and harvesting, crop spacing during planting time, new storage method and basic soil conservation principles.
iii. To instruct farmers good farming management practices. Efficient marketing channels, better processing methods and transportation means
iv. To encourage leadership qualities and cooperative living society
v. To raise the social; status of the farmer through basic health education
Credit is a payable form of financial assistance given to farmers, with or without interest to help them execute their farm. Credits can be in cash or kind. In order to achieve greater output in production, farmers need credit facility to excel. Agricultural Credits are generally provided by government agencies.
In practice, farmers usually find it very difficult to obtain agricultural Credit from these government agencies most especially in Nigeria. So most farmers in Nigeria find it difficult to excel for lack of Credit facilities.
The government of any country plays an important role in the development of agriculture through the provision of subsidies. Subsidies are a form of assistance which are meant to help farmers. Agricultural subsidies are like discount on goods given to farmers on subsidized rate. Agricultural subsidies are generally very important to poor farmers living in remote areas, who don’t also know the right place purchase some of the materials like fertilizers and other farm implement. With the aid of agricultural subsidies, the living standard of the average farmer is also lifted to higher level. Agricultural subsidies are also a away or methods through which the government can tackle the rate of inflation.
Thus agricultural subsidies helps to solve the problem of finance in the chain of production.
The government of any nation can help in agricultural development by building or providing quarantine services. Plant quarantine regulation are made by the government the introduction and prevention foreign plant/crop diseases into the country. The primary purpose of agricultural quarantine service in agricultural science is to protect the internally produced crops within a country from diseases and pests from countries. Quarantine service can also be applied to prevent the spread of certain species plants or crops.
During quarantine service period the imported crops or plants are kept under close supervision and observation. If the disease symptoms appear for which the plant was quarantine, the plant is destroyed immediately.
The effects of most diseases causing organisms can be avoided by using preventive methods. One of such methods is to immunize animals against diseases with the use Vaccines. A Vaccine is weakened germs which stimulate the body of the intended organism to develop immunity. A good vaccination program is an important part of animal husbandry especially within the young stocks. The provision of vaccines for use on animals or humans is solely the responsibility of the government through the department of health or Veterinary division of the ministry of agriculture and natural resources. Vaccines are usually provided free of charge or at a subsidized rate.
FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE