TYPES OF AGRICULTURE AND AREAS OF AGRICULTURE
1. Explain the term subsistence and commercial Agriculture 2. List and differentiate the various areas of specialization in agriculture 2:1 Types of agriculture
All over the world, there are basically two types of agriculture.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE1. The farms are very small.
2. It is Characterized by the use of simple farm tools such
hoes, cutlasses, axe and others
3. Usually mixed cropping. The planting of many different types of crops on a small piece of land
4. The farm workers are usually the farmer and his immediate family 👪
5.most of the farmers are usually very poor.
6. They generally don't. The access to fertilizers.
7. The animals are usually kept for the family 👪 consumption
COMMERCIAL AGRICULTUREThis type of agriculture is where the farmer produces crops for the sole purpose of making money 💵
CHARACTERISTICS1. With this type of agriculture, the large areas of lands is usually required
2. mordern farm machines and equipment are commonly used.
3. it requires large sum of money to start.
Usually involves large organizations. Examples of such companies in Nigeria are 1.Temperance farms. Otta Ogun state, John Holt Farms limited in Edo state, Leventis farms limited Agenebode in Edo State.
Here are some other type of agriculture which can also be grouped under subsistence and commercial agriculture
- Shifting Cultivation. Shifting cultivation is commonly practiced in the tropics.
- Nomadic Herding.
- Rudimentary Sedentary Tillage.
- Livestock Ranching/Pastoral Farming.
- Commercial Plantations.
- Mixed Farming.
- Specialized Horticulture.
- Subsistence Farming.
- Grain Farming.
- Shifting Cultivation
- Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming
- Pastoral Nomadism.
- Mediterranean Agriculture.
- Intensive Subsistence with wet rice dominant.
- Livestock Ranching.
- Shifting Cultivation
- Intensive Pastoral Farming
- Subsistence Cultivation seeking out a living; often done for consumption
- Commercial Cultivation
- Mixed Crop Cultivation.
- Dairy Farming
- Intensive Arable Farming
AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION IN AGRICULTUREthere are many fields of discipline in Agriculture, these are 1. Soil Science :soil is the natural materials on which crops or plants grow. The branch of science which studies the Soil is known as soil science.
Areas of Specialization in AgricultureThe following are the different areas.which one can specialize in the study of agriculture:
Soil ScienceThis deals with the study of the soil. It has to do with knowing the nature and types or classes of the soil, how to prepare the soil for crop production and managing the soil in a way that will enhance high yield of crops. A person that studied soil science is called soil scientist.
Animal ScienceThis is the study of farm animals. Farm animals are also called livestock. The rearing of livestock or farm animals is referred to as animal husbandry, The animal scientist is the person who studied the different kinds of farm animals, how they grow and reproduce, their food requirement, how to take proper care of the animals so that they would have good conditions favourable for high productivity.
Crop Science/Agronomy is an area of agricultureThis area deals with the study of crops, it is concerned with knowing the different kinds of crops and their varieties, the of cultivating them, what they require to grow and produce This area is closely connected with soil science hence universities prefer to use the term agronomy to include soil science and crop science. The agronomist is one who is specialized in crop science.
Agricultural Education as area of agricultureThis is the study and teaching of agriculture in schools. People who teach agricultural science in schools and colleges are called Agricultural Educators or Agricultural Science Teachers. In the universities or other higher institutions, they are called Agricultural Lecturers.
Agricultural ExtensionThis is a very important aspect of agriculture, because the development of sound agricultural practices depends on a good extension service. It is mainly concerned with passing information on improved farming techniques to farmers. The farmers' problems are also carried through extension service to research stations for solutions. The people who are trained to carry out agricultural extension service are called Agricultural Extension Officers or agents.
Agricultural EconomicsAgriculture is a business. .This means that it must be run in a way that profit will always come from it. Agricultural Economics is therefore concerned with the study of how agriculture can be run so that it will be a profitable business. Agricultural Economics enables the farmer to know what to produce, with what to produce, how to produce, and what to do with the farm produce and finally what is the profit. A specialist in this area of agriculture is called Agricultural Economist.
reproduce, requirement, how to take proper care of the animals so that they would have good conditions favourable for high productivity.
HorticultureThis deals with the science and art of growing:
(b) Vegetables (Olericulture)
(c) Ornamental plants or flowers (Floriculture).
A person that specializes in horticulture is called Horticulturist.
ForestryThis is that branch of agriculture that deals with the control and management of forests and forest resources. A forest represents an area of land which is mainly covered_ with trees along with other plant species. The forestry officer is one who specializes in forest management.
FisheryThe rearing of fishes and other aquatic organisms in a body of water is termed fishery. Fishery as a course/subject in agriculture studies the different kinds of fishes and other aquatic organisms, how they are reared, captured, preserved and used. Fishery matters are handled by fishery
officers, trained in fishery.
Veterinary MedicineThis is the area that studies the diseases and pests -of farm animals. The veterinarian is one who helps in vaccinating farm animals against diseases and treat them when they are sick. They are often called Veterinary doctors.
Agricultural EngineeringThis is concerned with the study of farm machineries and their uses. It also includes the maintenance of those machines and implements used on the farm, as well as construction, use and maintenance of farm structures and buildings. A specialist in this area is called Agricultural Engineer.
Other areas include Agricultural Journalism, Agricultural Biology, General Agriculture, Agricultural Biochemistry and Nutrition, etc,
Courses in agriculture available in Nigerian Higher Institutions'
Agriculture can be studied in any of the following levels of institution:
1. Schools of Agriculture and polytechnics
These offer a two-year course leading to the award of the national Diploma (N.D.) some offer a further two-year course leading to the award of Higher National Diploma (H.N.D).
2. Colleges of Education
These institutions train agricultural science teachers for a three year duration after which they are awarded the Nigeria Certificate of Education (N.C.E.).
Different universities have their faculties of agriculture when different courses are offered leading to the award of any of the following:
(a) B.Sc ( Agric)
(b) B. Agric~
To study Agriculture in higher schools in Nigeria, it is advisable to offer and have credit passes, at the senior school certificate examination, Agricultural Science, Biology, Chemistry, English and Mathematics. Other relevant subjects are Physics, Economics and Geography.
Graduates from the different schools and different courses may become any of the following:
(1) Agricultural Officers in Ministries of Agriculture.
(2) Research Officers in Research Stations.
(3) Teachers in secondary schools.
(4) Teachers/Lecturers in -higher institutions.
(5) Managers in commercial farms.
(6) Agricultural loans officers in Banks ,
(7) Veterinary doctors.
(8) Public Relations Officers in large Agro-industries or farms.
(9) Agricultural journalists
(10) Agricultural businessmen f
(11) Forestry officers. .
(12) Fishery officers.
It has been mentioned earlier in this unit that
agriculture is both academic and vocational.What has been discussed above is the academic and vocational aspect of agriculture.
On the vocational side, a person who studied agriculture' can engage in any of the following vocations or occupations:
a) Arable crops production: This is concerned with the cultivation of food crops such as cereals, tubers, plantains* and banana, etc.
(b)Cash crops production: This includes the cultivation of crops such as cotton, oil palm, rubber, cocoa, etc.
(c) Vegetables production
(d) Production of ornamental plants and landscape development and beautification.
(e) Livestock production: This includes the rearing of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits or poultry. . (g) Fishery.,
(h) Agricultural business (trading on farm produce and farm equipment or inputs)
Advantages of choosing farming as a careerMany people often think that agriculture means farming. T his is not entirely true. As it has been seen in the preceding discussions, agriculture is academic, it is a business and it is a vocation or an occupation. Farming comes under vocation or occupation in agriculture.
Agriculture is mainly concerned with the cultivation of crops and the rearing of animals on the farm. Farming therefore is an important component or sub-sector of agriculture because it is the source of food for mankind. AH other aspects of agriculture are geared towards improving farming and hence increasing available food for human consumption. Therefore, agriculture cam toe regarded as the mother of all professions, occupations or businesses.
If agriculture flourishes, every other aspect of human endeavour will flourish, but if the land is allowed to lie fallow, every other thing is at a standstill.
HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
11. AGRICULTURAL REGULATIONS
12. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION
13. RESEARCH INSTITUTES IN AGRICULTURE
14. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
15. AGRICULTURAL CREDITS
16. AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES
17. QUARANTINE SERVICES
18. VACCINES IN AGRICULTURE
19. FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
20. PROBLEMS OF FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
21. OPERATION FEED THE NATION