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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

BREEDS OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. SUCH AS GOATS, SHEEP, PIG, RABBITS AND CATTLES


BREEDS OF GOAT AND PIG


1. GOAT:

GOAT IS ONE OF THE MOST POPULAR FARM ANIMALS in the world. The products from goat are cherished by Muslims and Christians alike. Goats do well even in places where it is unlikely for other farm animals to survive.



They lived on variety of feeds and eat almost anything that is not soiled. Goats are therefore found in all parts of Nigeria for example.



IMPORTANCE OF GOAT KEEPING

I. For the production of meat II. For the production of milk III. For the production of mohair IV. For the production of hides The adult male Goat is called Billy. The adult female is called a Doe The young of either sex is called kid, while a female that is above one year but below two years is called a Goathing.

BREEDS OF GOATS


1. Dwarf Goat: this type of Goat is native to most southern parts of Nigeria. It is short in stature and muscularly built. They vary from black, reddish, brown or multiple colours. It is a good source of meat.

2. SOKOTO RED OF MARADI: this type of Goat very common in Sokoto State of Nigeria hence the name Sokoto Maradi.

3. Sahel or Desert Goat: this type of Goat is found in the extreme North of Nigeria. The Goat has long legs, medium or large body size. The desert Goat is a good meat and skin producer.

4. KANO BROWN: it is a medium size Goat and is common in Kano area of Nigeria. The Goat has straight ears and brown hairs.








5. BORNO RED: this type of Goat is majorly found in Borno state in Nigeria. It has long tin legs, pointed horns and large ears.

6. SAAREN: this is a European breed of Goat. It has no horn, and is majorly white and pale cream colour and with black spot on the ear.

7. ANGLO-NUBIAN: this type of Goat originated from India and Egypt. It has no horn. The animal is very good in the production of meat and milk.


8. ANGORA: this type of Goat originated from central Asia, and is kept majorly for the production of Mohair.

9. TOGGEN-BURG: this is a Swiss breed of Goat and has chocolate colour with white or cream stripes.


PIG PIG:
pig is one of the domesticated animals found in Nigeria and most other West African sub region. Pigs are reared for the production of meat called pork and fats called lard. The pig produces large liters twice a year. One litter or birth gives between six and sixteen piglets. Pig virtually eats anything edible when given. The rearing of pigs in Nigeria and the consumption is not very popular for religious reasons mostly in the northern part of Nigeria. The pig is a major carrier of tapeworm that infects humans.
The adult male pig is called Boar. The adult female is called Sow. The young of either sex is called Piglet


1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS






76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE



BREEDS OF PIGS The breeds of pigs reared in Nigeria include those that are native to Nigeria and those that are brought from Europe and America. And they are as follows:


1. WEST AFRICAN DWARF PIG:
this breed of pig is kept by the local farmers in villages and towns in most southern part of Nigeria. It is small in size and usually black or brown in colour. It live in dirty environment and eats anything that comes its way. This breed of pig is native to West Africa.


2. LARGE WHITE:
This is a popular meat producing pig in Nigeria. It is white in colour and has average size. It is resistant to tryponosomiasis disease hence found in Southern Nigeria. The pig is native to America.



3. LANDRACE: this pig is larger than all other breeds. It has white skin and ears. The pig has large ears pointing forward. It originated from Norway. 4. DUROC: this type has large body. Golden yellow or cherry red in colour. It has droopy ears. It has its origin from U.S.A. 5. LARGE BLACK: the animal is black in colour with droopy ears. Very good meat producer and originated from America. 6. CHESTER WHITE: this pig has white colour. The ears are droopy and are larger than Duroc. Originated from Pennsylvania U.S.A. 7. TAMWORTH: the animal has red colour, long head, small legs and slim body. It is native of IRELAND.



SHEEP, GOATS AND RABBIT









Sheep.



(b) Breeds of Sheep

(a) The West African Dwarf sheep

(b) The West African long legged sheep e.g. the African Ouda

(c) The Macuna Wool Sheep. This is found mainly in the Sudan. Their skins are valuable and are exported.






(c) Management Practices in Sheep:

(i) Housing: Mature sheep do not require expensive housing. They do well where they can have dry bed in the open. Housing is however important during the wet season for all grades of sheep. The buildings are generally simple having little or no equipment. Slated platforms are provided in pens on which the animals lie. The slate are therefore self-cleaning. The droppings are removed from time to time and can be used for compost making.

(ii) Feeding: Sheep is a ruminant. It feeds on a variety of grasses and shrubs. Sheep are more able, than any other farm animal, to make use of whole maize grains without previous

Therefore, whole maize grains can be fed to sheep to supplement grass feed. This is very important in the dry season. Sheep on the dry feeds requires a great deal of water. In addition, adequate minerals and antibiotics should be provided.

(i) Breeding: Both male and female sheep attain sexual maturity in six months, but are best used for service or best served when 9 – 12months old. Heat period lasts 1-2 days in sheep and is repeated in about 21days. Gestation period is about 150 days. A female sheep will come on heat 7 months after delivery. The male sheep are castrated between 1-4 weeks after birth and are weaned in 4 to 6 months.

In temperature areas, there are seasons for breeding. It is known that feeding sheep well during the breeding season results in the production of twin lambs. This practice of feeding sheep well during the breeding season is known as "flushing". In general, good feeding during pregnancy results in strong and healthy lambs.



1.5 Goat. Goats are very common farm animals all over Nigeria.

(a) Importance of Goat Keeping

1. Goat meat is cherished by many people and it is a rich source of protein

2. Goat milk is easily digestible and has many advantages over cow milk

3. Goat hair) is used in making carpets and bags.

4. Goat provide income to the keeper.

5. Goat provides hides and skin used in making leather works.

6. Goat are used for many festivals and ceremonies.

7. The droppings provide manure to soils for growing crops.

(b) Breed of Goat: The following are the common breeds of goat in Nigeria:

(a) Dwarf goat

(b) Sokoto Red or Maradi

(c) Sahel or Desert goat

(d) Kano Brown

(e) Borno Red











Imported or exotic breeds include:


(a) Saanen

(b) Anglo-Nubian

(c) Toggen-burg

(d) Angora



(c) Some terms associated with goat keeping:

1. Doe: adult female goat sometimes called nanny goat

2. Billy: adult male goat

3. Kid: a young goat of either sex usually under one year old.

4. Goat meat: meat from goat

5. Castrate: castrated male goat

6. Kidding: the act of giving birth in goats,



(d) Goat breeding: Goats mature at a very early age. It is advisable that both the male and .female should reach the age of nine months and twelve to eighteen mouths respectively before being bred.



Oestros Cycle: 21-28 days. Heat period: 24-48 hours.



Since ovulation (shedding of the ova) occurs towards the end i heat, the best time to mate the doe is about 12 hours before the end of heat. The signs of heat includes:



1. bleating (irritating noise making)

2. riding other goats

3. tail shaking

4. swollen and reddened vulva

5. tendency to urinate frequently



Gestation period: 5 months or 150 days.



Goat kid three times in two years. One to three kids are normally given birth to at one kidding or parturition.



Young kids should be allowed to take their mothers colostrum.



Weaning: 4-6 months of age.



Castration: males not required for breeding should be castrated at one to four weeks of age. The remaining ones can then be managed under any of the following management systems



(c) Management Systems for Goats

Goat may be managed under:

1. Extensive system

2. Intensive system.

3. Semi-intensive system



1. Extensive System: Under this system, the goats are given all freedom to wander about in search of feed tor themselves. They h id on grasses and kitchen wastes. No deliberate attempt is made to house the goats although they are sometimes provided shelter at nights.

Goats reared under this system are very destructive as they feed on almost all economic plants and even human food.

2. Intensive system: In this system the goats are continuously housed. Feed and water are provided for them in the pens. The houses provide protection against environmental hazards and predators. The destructive aspect of goats is also controlled.

The pens, water troughs and feeding devices are cleaned regularly to ensure good hygiene. Deworming and spraying against parasites are common practices with goats reared under the intensive systems of management, i mats do well under this system of rearing.

3. Semi- intensive system: This involves rearing of goats in pastures. The goats are rotated from pasture. This is called controlled grazing. Some pens are provided in the pasture land. It combines the advantages of intensive system management.

Tethering is generally part of the semi-intensive method of goat keeping since fences are expensive. Tethering involves tying the utility a rope to a stake or tree. They feed from that stand. The areas they can breed depends on the length of the rope. It is better lo tether goats in small huts with roofs or under tree shades where forage crops are brought to them in order to avoid harsh environmental conditions. This system of management is cheap.

Rabbits

Rabbits can be raised at a shortest possible time with least feed. They may be bred for yarn, fur, pels, as a source of letting and for laboratory experiments in Colleges and Universities. They are also a source of income to the farmers. The meat of rabbit is high in protein and low in fat and caloric content. Its manure is high in nitrogen and phosphoric




(a) Breeds of Rabbits

These are the important breeds of domestic rabbits: the New Zealand white. Flemish Giant, the New Zealand Red and Checkered Giant. Some rabbit’s breeders recommend the New Zealand for Nigeria.

(b) Management practices in Rabbits

(i) Housing: Rabbits are kept in cages called hutches. It is most essential that the hutches are protected from rain and sunlight. Each adult rabbit should have its own hutch, which should be 60cm high 75cm deep and 1 ½ - 2m long. The cage should dry and self-cleaning. The bottom of the cage should be made of wire mesh so that the faeces and urine can drop to the ground. Also, the cages should stand on legs and the total height of each should be waist high. It is difficult to keep cages with solid bottom dry. Wet cages encourage breeding of flies, and coccidiosis. A three unit cage is always recommended, that is, that can hold three adult rabbits; two doe (female rabbit) and a buck (male rabbit). The walls of the hutch can be made of split bamboo while the roof is made in such a way mil rain from tickling through. All cages must stand in filled with water to keep off ants.

Breeding cages may, be provided with nest boxes. These be built into the cages or they may be removable boxes that can be set in cages several days before the does are ready to kindle (give birth to young ones). A nest box should be 55cm. A few small holes should be drilled at the bottom of the box drainage.

Water must be provided in each cage always and the waterer cleaned off every morning before adding new one. The waterer must not be leaking.



(ii)Rabbits are fed twice a day. That is in the morning - evening. Grains are fed in the morning while green led in the evening. Nursing does require more feeds than dry does or bucks. The best feed is poultry mash, either grower layers mash. Since poultry mash is dusty, it should prevent irritation of the nose and lungs. Alternatively, a mixture of guinea corn and groundnut cake can be alter grinding. The best green feeds are Amaranthus, Aspilia Africana, Talinum triangular and grasses.

(ii) Breeding: Most large breeds of rabbit such as New Zealand white sexually mature in 8-9 months and can be bred then. The smaller breeds like the polish can be used for breeding when four months old. Bucks (male) and does (female) mature about same age. One buck can service about ten does if the breeding spread out. However no buck should be used more times a week for service and when the doe shows signs of heat, it should be taken to the buck’s cage for mating. This is because if the duck is brought to doe’s cage, the doe may attack it. If the doe is just placed the hutch with the buck, it will often squat in the corner of hutch and will not accept service. Therefore, holding the will quicken mating. After mating, the doe should be sent to her hutch. The service date should be recorded and approximate kindling date noted. Gestation period, that is after two weeks, the doe should be examined for pregnancy pressing gently with the hand on her belly. If she is pregnant one will feel some small marble shaped lumps in the womb uterus. If the doe is not pregnant, it should be sent back to when it comes on heat again.














(iii) Kindling:

Kindling is the act of giving birth to the young. A nest should be placed in the hutch about 24 days after it has been mated. If it kindles on wire floor the litter (a grown young ones born at the same time) may perish. No strong bedding is to be placed in the cage. The cage must be the doe will pull out enough hair from her belly to cover litter. As each infant is delivered, the doe licks it. After kindling, the litter should be inspected and dead or deformed removed. The cans on which the hutch is standing must be with water to prevent ants from entering to kill the young of Rabbits are nervous animals and are more nervous during kindling periods. Therefore, keep the doe as quiet as possible during this period, keep off all natural enemies like do cats. Keep people and children away from her hutch. Avoid the doe as much as possible on the day before and after kindling because excitement also causes abortion.

Some does kill their young ones. This may be a sign under feeding. Some kill for no purpose. Such doe should be called.



Hygiene:

With good housing, it is not difficult to maintain hygiene in rabbit’s house. It is important to clean hutches and waterers regularly and remove droppings from the floor to build up of disease organisms. Major diseases of rabbits are pneumonia and diarrhea. These should be controlled when they occur by consulting the nearest veterinary doctor.

Rabbits

Rabbits can be raised at a shortest possible time with least feed. They may be bred for yarn, fur, pels, as a source of letting and for laboratory experiments in Colleges and Universities. They are also a source of income to the farmers. The meat of rabbit is high in protein and low in fat and caloric content. Its manure is high in nitrogen and phosphoric



(a) Breeds of Rabbits

These are the important breeds of domestic rabbits: the New Zealand white. Flemish Giant, the New Zealand Red and Checkered Giant. Some rabbit’s breeders recommend the New Zealand for Nigeria.

(b) Management practices in Rabbits

(i) Housing: Rabbits are kept in cages called hutches. It is most essential that the hutches are protected from rain and sunlight. Each adult rabbit should have its own hutch, which should be 60cm high 75cm deep and 1 ½ - 2m long. The cage should dry and self-cleaning. The bottom of the cage should be made of wire mesh so that the faeces and urine can drop to the ground. Also, the cages should stand on legs and the total height of each should be waist high. It is difficult to keep cages with solid bottom dry. Wet cages encourage breeding of flies, and coccidiosis. A three unit cage is always recommended, that is, that can hold three adult rabbits; two doe (female rabbit) and a buck (male rabbit). The walls of the hutch can be made of split bamboo while the roof is made in such a way mil rain from tickling through. All cages must stand in filled with water to keep off ants.

Breeding cages may, be provided with nest boxes. These be built into the cages or they may be removable boxes that can be set in cages several days before the does are ready to kindle (give birth to young ones). A nest box should be 55cm. A few small holes should be drilled at the bottom of the box drainage.

Water must be provided in each cage always and the waterer cleaned off every morning before adding new one. The waterer must not be leaking.



(ii)Rabbits are fed twice a day. That is in the morning - evening. Grains are fed in the morning while green led in the evening. Nursing does require more feeds than dry does or bucks. The best feed is poultry mash, either grower layers mash. Since poultry mash is dusty, it should prevent irritation of the nose and lungs. Alternatively, a mixture of guinea corn and groundnut cake can be alter grinding. The best green feeds are Amaranthus, Aspilia Africana, Talinum triangular and grasses.

(ii) Breeding: Most large breeds of rabbit such as New Zealand white sexually mature in 8-9 months and can be bred then. The smaller breeds like the polish can be used for breeding when four months old. Bucks (male) and does (female) mature about same age. One buck can service about ten does if the breeding spread out. However no buck should be used more times a week for service and when the doe shows signs of heat, it should be taken to the buck’s cage for mating. This is because if the duck is brought to doe’s cage, the doe may attack it. If the doe is just placed the hutch with the buck, it will often squat in the corner of hutch and will not accept service. Therefore, holding the will quicken mating. After mating, the doe should be sent to her hutch. The service date should be recorded and approximate kindling date noted. Gestation period, that is after two weeks, the doe should be examined for pregnancy pressing gently with the hand on her belly. If she is pregnant one will feel some small marble shaped lumps in the womb uterus. If the doe is not pregnant, it should be sent back to when it comes on heat again.


(iii) Kindling:



Kindling is the act of giving birth to the young. A nest should be placed in the hutch about 24 days after it has been mated. If it kindles on wire floor the litter (a grown young ones born at the same time) may perish. No strong bedding is to be placed in the cage. The cage must be the doe will pull out enough hair from her belly to cover litter. As each infant is delivered, the doe licks it. After kindling, the litter should be inspected and dead or deformed removed. The cans on which the hutch is standing must be with water to prevent ants from entering to kill the young of Rabbits are nervous animals and are more nervous during kindling periods. Therefore, keep the doe as quiet as possible during this period, keep off all natural enemies like do cats. Keep people and children away from her hutch. Avoid the doe as much as possible on the day before and after kindling because excitement also causes abortion.

Some does kill their young ones. This may be a sign under feeding. Some kill for no purpose. Such doe should be called.









Hygiene:

With good housing, it is not difficult to maintain hygiene in rabbit’s house. It is important to clean hutches and waterers regularly and remove droppings from the floor to build up of disease organisms. Major diseases of rabbits are pneumonia and diarrhea. These should be controlled when they occur by consulting the nearest veterinary doctor.


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Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT