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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE Farm mechanization has the following advantages 1. ...

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TYPES OF AGRICULTURE



OBJECTIVES: STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO:


TYPES OF AGRICULTURE

All over the world, there are basically two types of agriculture.
These are
1. Explain the term subsistence and commercial Agriculture
2. List and differentiate the various areas of specialization in agriculture

(a)

SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE

This is the type of agriculture where the farmer produces food just enough for his family consumption. In time of good harvest the surplus is sold for extra cash. The basic idea and aim of a subsistence farmer is to be able to feed his family.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE


1. The farms are very small.
2. It is Characterized by the use of simple farm tools such s hoes, cutlasses, axe and others
3. Usually mixed cropping. The planting of many different types of crops on a small piece of land
4. The farm workers are usually the farmer and his immediate family
5.most of the farmers are usually very poor.
6. They generally don't. The access to fertilizers.

7. The animals are usually kept for the family

(B)

COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

This type of agriculture is where the farmer produces crops for the sole purpose of making money đŸ’”




CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE


1. With this of agriculture, the large areas of lands is usually required
2.modern farm machines and equipment are commonly used.
3.it requires large sum of money to start. Usually involves large organizations.

Examples of such companies in Nigeria are:

1.Temperance farms. Otta Ogun state,
2. John Holt Farms limited in Edo state,
3. Leventis farms limited Agenebode in Edo State.

AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

there are many fields of discipline in Agriculture, these are

1.

Soil Science

:soil is the natural materials on which crops or plants grow.The branch of science which studies the Soil is known as soil science.

2.

Crop science

:this is the branch of science deals with the growing of crops

3.

Fishery

:this branch Of science deals the production of fish 🐠

4.

Forestry and wildlife :

this branch of Agriculture is concerned with the growing of trees and maintenance of animals in the forests

AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

1.

SOIL SCIENCE…

soil is the natural material on which plant-crop grows. The science that deals or studies the soil is called soil science. The type and nature of soil on which crops are grown is very important to the farmer.

2.

CROP SCIENCE…

this is the science which deals with the study of crops and its type. For crops to do well, it is important to know their different parts and nature to ensure that the best solution is proffered to taking of them.







3.

FISHERY…

fishery is the branch of Agriculture which is concerned with the production of fish and other related aquatic animals in the farm.

4.

FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE…

this is the branch of Agriculture that is concerned with growing, management and maintenance of trees and animals in the forest.

5.

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION…

this is the branch of Agriculture which deals with the training of farmers and other farming related workers.

6.

VETERINARY MEDICINE…

this is the branch of Agriculture which deals with the study of diseases of farm Animals.







7.

AGRICULTURE ECONOMICS…

this is the branch of Agriculture which teaches the farmer how to properly manage and run their farm in order to get more money.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

8.

AGRICULTURE EXTENSION…

this is the Area of Agriculture which is concerned with how to help farmers to help themselves. Extension involves teaching rural people in their homes and farms. They are majorly government workers from the ministry of Agriculture. They are involved in teaching and guiding farmers to understanding new ways or modern techniques of plant practices for better yield.

9.

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING..

This is the area of Agriculture that deals with study of farm tools and machineries used in farm work.

10.

ANIMAL SCIENCE..

This is the science that deals with the study of farm animals or livestock. The common farm animals are Goats, Cattle, Sheep, Pig, Fowl, Duck and many others.

11.

HORTICULTURE.

This is the branch of crop science which deals with vegetables, fruits, and ornamental plants or flowers.

Horticulture therefore is divided into three areas. Namely

i. OLERICULTURE which deals with vegetable production.
ii. FLORICULTURE deals with the production of ornamental plants.
iii. POMOLOGY which deals with the production of fruits

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