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TYPES OF AGRICULTURE




TYPES OF AGRICULTURE

All over the world, there are basically two types of agriculture.
These are
1. Explain the term subsistence and commercial Agriculture
2. List and differentiate the various areas of specialization in agriculture

(a)

SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE

This is the type of agriculture where the farmer produces food just enough for his family consumption. In time of good harvest the surplus is sold for extra cash. The basic idea and aim of a subsistence farmer is to be able to feed his family.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE


1. The farms are very small.
2. It is Characterized by the use of simple farm tools such s hoes, cutlasses, axe and others
3. Usually mixed cropping. The planting of many different types of crops on a small piece of land
4. The farm workers are usually the farmer and his immediate family
5.most of the farmers are usually very poor.
6. They generally don't. The access to fertilizers.
7. The animals are usually kept for the family

(B)

COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

This type of agriculture is where the farmer produces crops for the sole purpose of making money 💵







CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE


1. With this of agriculture, the large areas of lands is usually required
2.modern farm machines and equipment are commonly used.
3.it requires large sum of money to start. read about farm credits and finance here Usually involves large organizations.

Examples of such companies in Nigeria are:

1.Temperance farms. Otta Ogun state,
2. John Holt Farms limited in Edo state,
3. Leventis farms limited Agenebode in Edo State.

AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

there are many fields of discipline in Agriculture, these are

1.

Soil Science

:soil is the natural materials on which crops or plants grow.The branch of science which studies the Soil is known as soil science.
2.

Crop science

:this is the branch of science deals with the growing of crops

3.

Fishery

:this branch Of science deals the production of fish

4.

Forestry and wildlife :

this branch of Agriculture is concerned with the growing of trees and maintenance of animals in the forests

AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

1.

SOIL SCIENCE…

soil is the natural material on which plant-crop grows. The science that deals or studies the soil is called soil science. The type and nature of soil on which crops are grown is very important to the farmer.

2.

CROP SCIENCE…

this is the science which deals with the study of crops and its type. For crops to do well, it is important to know their different parts and nature to ensure that the best solution is proffered to taking of them.









3.

FISHERY…

fishery is the branch of Agriculture which is concerned with the production of fish and other related aquatic animals in the farm.

4.

FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE…

this is the branch of Agriculture that is concerned with growing, management and maintenance of trees and animals in the forest.

5.

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION…

this is the branch of Agriculture which deals with the training of farmers and other farming related workers.

6.

VETERINARY MEDICINE…

this is the branch of Agriculture which deals with the study of diseases of farm Animals.

7.

AGRICULTURE ECONOMICS…

this is the branch of Agriculture which teaches the farmer how to properly manage and run their farm in order to get more money.

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION

61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS







8.

AGRICULTURE EXTENSION…

this is the Area of Agriculture which is concerned with how to help farmers to help themselves. Extension involves teaching rural people in their homes and farms. They are majorly government workers from the ministry of Agriculture. They are involved in teaching and guiding farmers to understanding new ways or modern techniques of plant practices for better yield.

9.

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING..

This is the area of Agriculture that deals with study of farm tools and machinery used in farm work.

10.

ANIMAL SCIENCE..

This is the science that deals with the study of farm animals or livestock. The common farm animals are Goats, Cattle, Sheep, Pig, Fowl, Duck and many others.

11.

HORTICULTURE.

This is the branch of crop science which deals with vegetables, fruits, and ornamental plants or flowers.

Horticulture therefore is divided into three areas. Namely

i. OLERICULTURE which deals with vegetable production.
ii. FLORICULTURE deals with the production of ornamental plants.
iii. POMOLOGY which deals with the production of fruits

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