FORMATION, COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SOIL


FORMATION, COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SOIL


ROCKS

Rocks are made up of units of one or mineral concentrated into massive state. They constitute the hardest part of the earth’s crust.



TYPES OF ROCK

There are three major types of rocks based on how they were formed. They are 1. IGNEOUS ROCK: this is formed as a result of cooling down and solidification of molten magma in the earth’s crust. Examples are Basalt and granite 2. SEDIMENTARY ROCK: this is formed as a result of sedimentation and cementation of the deposited materials such as rock fragments, shell and others. Examples are limestone, sandstone and gypsum 3. METAMORPHIC ROCK: this formed when Igneous or sedimentary rock or both are subjected to heat action and pressure. This causes changes in the original structure. Examples are Marble from limestone, gneiss from granite and quartzite from sandstone.


USES OF ROCK

1. Rock is the primary material from which soil is formed
2. It supports the absorption of weights on the earth crust
3. It provides materials for road construction
4. It provides mineral nutrients for the growth of plants
5. Some rock are used in the manufacture of fertilizer and lime
6. It is a source of income to quarry industries
7. Rocks can be used t control gully erosion
8. Rocks (Gypsum) are used in the manufacture of cement
9. Rocks are used in the construction of buildings
10. Some rocks such as granite are used as grinding stone





MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF SOIL

1. Meaning of soil: soil is the uppermost part of the earth that supports plants growth. It is a mixture of mineral matter from weathered rocks, organic matter, water, air and some living organism. IMPORTANCE OF SOIL i. It supports the growth of plants. It provides anchorage for the plant ii. It provides plants with mineral nutrients iii. It supplies water and air needed by plants and other organism living in the soil. iv. It provides the medium on which food for man is produced. v. It forms the foundation for the construction and building of houses


SOIL FORMATION

Soil is formed from the breaking down of parent rocks into smaller particles.

WEATHERING

This the process by which rocks are broken down into smaller pieces to form soil. There are three major types of weathering, they are

1.

PHYSICAL WEATHERING:

this is the breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces through physical means such as temperature, water, ice movement and wind.
2.

CHEMICAL WEATHERING:

this is the breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces through reaction such as hydrolysis, hydration, solution, carbonation and oxidation
3.

BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING:

this is the breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces by the activities of living organism, like the roots of plants causing cracks in rocks. This can also be caused by the action of man during cultivation and road construction.


COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SOIL



The soil is made up of the following

1. Air
2. Water
3. Organic matter
4. Living organisms , and
5. Mineral matter.



SOIL AIR

The amount of in the air varies under natural condition depending on the weather and other factors such as nature of soil.

Air is important in the soil because

1. It promotes aeration.

Soil aeration

is the exchange carbon (IV) oxide and oxygen gases between the soil and the atmosphere.
2. Well aerated soil supplies enough oxygen for plant root respiration and growth
3. It increases organic matter decomposition and nutrient supply.
4. It improves the activities of ling organisms in the soil

HOW TO INCREASE SOIL AERATION

Soil aeration can be increased by ensuring that the amount of water in the soil is controlled. This is to allow space for air through drainage process.

2.

SOIL WATER

Water is a major component of the soil and it is very important in plant growth.

IMPORTANCE OF SOIL WATER

I. Helps the plant to maintain all the functions of the tissues
II. It regulates soil air and temperature
III. It dissolves and make available nutrients for plants growth and use
IV. It supports the lives of micro organisms in the soil.

SOIL WATER CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS FOLLOWS 1. GRAVITATIONAL WATER:

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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