fabioclass

20 Jun 2018

TYPES OF PARASITES


ANIMAL DISEASES AND PARASITES

Objectives: Students should be able to:
1. Identify the common diseases in the various types of farm animals.

2. State their symptoms, the methods of control and prevention

3. Identify common livestock parasites and give their effects on, farm animals.

4. Outline the control measures for each parasite.






11.1 What is a disease?
A disease may be defined as an abnormality in health. It is a deviation in the normal performance of the organism. 11.2 Types of disease of farm animals Diseases can be
classified according to their causes into:

(a) Pathogen diseases:
These are caused by living organisms, These organisms include:
(i) Viruses
(ii) Bacteria
(iii) Fungi
(iv) Protozoan
(v) Larger organisms such as ticks, lice, worms, etc.


(b) Nutritional deficiency diseases such as rickets, ketosis.


(c) Diseases caused by inanimate objects such as environmental chemicals.

11.3 How does disease get to animals?
This is through:
1. Droppings or faeces of infected animals

2. Contaminated feeds and water

3. Contact with infected animals

4. Air

5. Insects, feed or water troughs, etc.


How to identify a diseased/sick animal
The following signs help in identifying a sick or diseased animal:
1. Loss of appetite
2. Persistent coughing
3. Fever (high temperature)
4. Watery, bad smelling or blood stained faeces.
5. Inability to rise and sluggishness.
6. Rough skin/coat, and drooping of tail or wings in case of birds,
7. Discharges from the eyes, nostrils, mouth, or anus.
8. Emaciation
9. Death



11.5 Summary of some common diseases of farm animals
The table below shows a summary of common diseases of animals:
Name of disease
Causative agent
Animal affected Symptoms
Mode of transmission
Effective Control measures
Foot and Mouth disease
Virus
Cattle Sores on feet,
lips,
tongue,
cheek,
salivation and foaming
, inability to eat,
weakness,
lameness and death Transmitted by contact with infected animals or by contact with contaminated feed materials from diseased herd.
Serious loss of animals through death.
Vaccination and Isolation of diseased animals from healthy ones.
Bury dead animals deeply. No treatment.





Rinderpest Virus of Cattle,
High fever, blood stained shooting diarrhea.
Difficult breathing and animals grind their teeth
Death rate is very high Through contamination with infected animal and eating contaminated food.
Death of animals. Vaccination. Isolation of diseased animals. Kill and bury deeply infected animals. No treatment.
READ MY POST ON ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Newcastle disease (NCD)
Virus
Poultry Drop in feed intake,
severe respiratory difficulties.
Neck twisting and paralysis of the legs or wings.
Laying of soft shelled eggs, water greenish diarrhea
Through contact with faeces of infected birds, nasal and oral discharge from diseased birds and materials, contaminated by the virus.
Low egg production in layers. High mortality rate resulting in loss of birds.

Routine vaccination using freeze dried NCD vaccine given either intraoccular in young birds or inter-muscular in older birds. Good sanitary practices. No treatment.


BRUCELLOSIS
(Contagious abortion) Bacteria (Brucclla Abortus)
Cattle Irritation and catarrh conditions in the womb of the pregnant cow.
This results in the expulsion of foetus of about the 5th – 7th month of pregnancy as still birth Contacted when animals feed on contaminated pasture or other feed.

Also servicing by infected bull and flies that have rested on the foetus of affected animals can transmit the disease,
Loss of foetus.
Reduction in the level of an animal’s production.
The disease is zoonotic.

That is can affect human beings.

Vaccination.
Report any occurrence to the nearest veterinary officer.


ANTHRAX
Bacteria (Baccilus anthracis) Cattle, sheep and goat In acute cases,
the first sign is death.

In less acute cases, there may be blood stained discharges from nostrils and mouth and swelling in the neck, genitals and lower abdomen.
Through contact with infected animals and their products Loss of animals.

Note:
Do not open carcass of infected animals as the disease is also zoonotic.

Vaccination.
Burn or bury deeply any diseased animal.
Disinfect properly after disease has occurred in a herd.

TUBERCULOSIS
Bacteria (Mycobacterium spp) Occurs in most animals, Infects lungs resulting in persistent cough, emaciation, loss of condition and finally death Contact with infect animal.

It can also be through contact with discharge or sputum from cough.
Milk infected with the bacterium can equally transmit the disease. Lowers productivity and also results in loss of animals.
The disease is also zoonotic.
No treatment. Kill and bury deeply infected animal.
Routine checking by a veterinary doctor is important. Good hygiene. Vaccination.

FOWL TYPHOID Bacteria

Poultry Birds become dull and pass out yellowish diarrhea
Contact with the dropping from infected bird or contaminated food, water or soil. Loss of birds Proper sanitation.

Vaccination.
Contact a veterinary doctor WHO SPECIALIZES IN TREATING FARM ANIMALS






CHRONIC RESPIRATORY DISEASE (CRD)

Not yet identified. Could be bacteria or virus
Poultry Nasal discharges, rattling sound during breathing, loss in weight.
Through contact with infected birds and their nasal discharges Lowers production in birds and also results in loss of birds Good sanitation.
Avoid use of saw dust as litter. Use antibiotics. Consult a veterinary doctor or officer


RINGWORM (Favus in Poultry) Fungus

All animals and birds Lesions or scab on the skin of the animals, usually irritating and causing the falling off of the animal’s hair.
In Poultry, the disease is common on the combs and wattles producing grey patches
The fungus is usually spread from infected to healthy one through contact Results in loss of hair in animals resulting in low market value due to poor appearance of the animal Maintain clean conditions. Isolate infected animals and treat with iodine as surface dressing

TRYPANOSOMIASIS Protozoa (Trypanosoma spp)
Mainly Cattle. Also attacks goat and sheep Intermittent fever.
General weakness. Hair on tail often pull out.
General loss of condition and finally death.

Transmitted by tse-tse flies (Glossina spp) by biting infected animal, sucking the protozoan and injecting it into the blood of a healthy animal.
Drop in level of animal production,
death
Use drugs e.g. trypanosomide. Rear resistant breeds.
Also use chemical to kill the flies and clear bushes around animals pens to ward off the flies COCCIDIOSIS Protozoa (Coccidia Parasite-E imeria spp) Poultry Blood stained watery droppings. Ruffled feathers.

Loss of weight due to fall in feed intake. Death of birds. By taking contaminated food and water from the droppings of infected birds Drop in egg production.
Death of birds, Maintain high hygienic conditions.
Disinfect poultry house before stoking.

Use cocci-diostats e.g. Sulphamethazone added to drinking water.


SCABIES Fungus

Cattle, Goat, Sheep
It causes very itchy little lumps that can appear all over the body of the animal.
It is very common on the udder of female animals and the genitals of the male. Scratching can cause infection, producing sores with pus and some times swollen lymph nodes or fever.

Spreads by touching the affected parts of animals or by bedding. Causes loss of animal hair and destruction of skin. Could affect level of production. Maintain high level of cleanliness in the animal houses. Dip animals in solution.

Other diseases include
(a) Rabbit coccidiosis:
This is caused by a protozoan. The signs of the disease include blood-stained faeces and diarrhea.
Prevention is by separating young animals from old ones.
Diseased rabbits should also be separated.

Rabbit hutches should be cleared always.
Treatment is by the use of sulphonamide drugs.

(b) Swine fever or hog cholera: This affects pig and is caused by virus.
The virus is usually present in faeces and blood. The signs are shivering, loss of appetite, vomiting, fever and diarrhoea. 11.6




Animal Parasites

A parasite is a living organism which establishes itself on or in another organism called host, from which it gets its food. parasites are found inside the host. These are called Endo-Parasites, e.g. Tape Worm, Round Worm, Liver Fluke and

Trypanosome.
Those found on the body of animals are called Ecto-Parasites. e.g. Ticks, Lice, Mites. Some parasites of farm animals include:


1. Ecto-parasites

(a) Ticks:
These are eight-legged organisms belonging to the group arachnida. They feed on farm animals by sucking blood from them. Animals mostly affected by ticks are cattle, sheep, goats and dogs.

The effects of ticks on the farm animals include
(a) Anaemia
(b) Irritation leading to sore formation on the skin
(c) Destruction of skin
(d) Transmission of diseases such as red water, etc.
DIAGRAM Figure 2.11.la: Ticks, DIAGRAM Figure2.11b: Lice DIAGRAM Figure 2.11.c


Tsetse fly (transmits typanesomes by biting) Ticks can be controlled by:
(i) using clean environment for animals
(ii) practicing rotational grazing
(iii) spraying pens and animals with chemicals such as malathion.

(b) Lice:
These are small wingless insects which live under the hair of animals or feathers of birds. They also feed by sucking blood from animals, just like the ticks.
Lice cause irritation which results in sore formation and creates avenues for disease agents. They also cause anaemia. Lice can be controlled by:
(i) maintaining clean environment
(ii) avoiding over crowding
(iii) dipping animals in water containing chemicals such, as landline and DOT.




2. End-oparasites

(a) Roundworms: These are elongated, cylindrical, smooth-skinned, whitish worms, which are pointed at both ends. They are common parasites of cattle, pigs, and poultry.
Roundworm is found in the animal's intestine where it gets its food.
This parasite deprives the animals of their food thereby reducing their weight.

It can also result in slow growth and loss of appetite. The parasite could cause stomach disorders such as diarrhea, vomiting, etc.

Control is by:
(i) maintaining good hygienic conditions in animal environment, and

(ii) use of de-wormers such as piperazine.




(b) Liver fluke:
This is a short flat worm which attacks mainly cattle and sheep".

It sucks blood from the animal thereby causing emaciation and reducing productivity.
It may lead to the death of the animal. Control can be achieved by:

(i) the use of appropriate drugs

(ii) supplying clean drinking water, and

(iii) destruction of snails on grazing land because they help to harbor the pest DIAGRAM Figure 2.1 1.2a:

Roundworms DIAGRAM Figure 2.1 1.2b:


Liver Fluke DIAGRAM Figure 2.1 1.2c:


Tapeworm (i) Tapeworm: This is a long segmented flat worm which looks like the tape of the tailor.

The parasite mainly affects pigs and cattle.
The tapeworm possesses hooks and suckers in the scolex and these help to attach the parasite to its host while the suckers assist in feeding. In animals, the presence of tapeworm in tissues or organs could cause some physiological disorders, such as anaemia, abdominal pains, weakness and loss of weight.

The parasite can be controlled by:
(i) maintaining good hygienic conditions
(ii) use of drugs (iii) proper cooking of meat before eating by man which serves as primary host.
General methods of controlling animal diseases Diseases can be:
(i) Prevented, and (ii) Controlled.

(a) Prevention:
This involves the following practices:
(a) Good sanitation/hygiene
(b) Good feeding .
(c) Vaccination
(d) Quarantine
(e) Breeding
(f) Separation
(g) Rotational grazing.


(b) Control: This involves;

(i) Treatments The use of drugs which may be in the form of powder, liquid or solids, given in ` water, feeds or as injections. (

ii) Destruction of diseased animals.
They arc either burnt or buried.


LISTS OF ANIMAL PARASITES

1. CYMOTHOA EXIGUA
2. BED BUGS
3. CULICIDAE -(MOSQUITOES)
4. CALYPTRA -(VAMPIRE MOTHS)
5. TSETSE FLY
6. LIPOPTENA
7. MELOPHAGUS OVINUS, (SHEEP) AND RELATIVES
8. OESTRIDAE (BOT FLIES)
9. PHLEBOTOMINAE (SAND FLIES)
10. PHTHIRAPTERA (LICE)
11. BODY LOUSE
12. CRAB LOUSE
13. HEAD LOUSE
14. SIPHONAPTERA (FLEAS)
15. TABANIDAE (HORSE FLIES)
16. TANTULOCARIDA
17. TRIATOMINAE
18. PEA CRAB
19. SACCULINA
20. AMOEBIASIS
21. ACANTHAMOEBA
22. BALAMUTHIA MANDRILLARIS
23. GIARDIA
24. CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS
25. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM
26. TOXOPLASMA GONDII
27. LEISHMANIA
28. PLASMODIUM - CAUSES THE FATAL DISEASE LIKE MALARIA
29. BABESIA
30. ACANTHOCEPHALA
31. ASCARIASIS (ROUNDWORMS)
32. CITATION NEEDED---
33. “CESTODA (TAPEWORMS)----TAENIA SAGINATA (HUMAN BEEF TAPEWORM), TAENIA SOLIUM (HUMAN PORK TAPEWORM), DIPHYLLOBOTHRIUM LATUM (FISH TAPEWORM) AND ECHINOCOCCOSIS (HYDATID TAPEWORM)”
34. CLONORCHIS SINENSIS (THE CHINESE LIVER FLUKE)
35. DRACUNCULUS MEDINENSIS (GUINEA WORM)
36. ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS (PINWORM)
37. FILARIASIS
38. HOOKWORM
39. ONCHOCERCIASIS (RIVER BLINDNESS)
40. SCHISTOSOMIASIS
41. STRONGYLOIDES STERCORALIS
42. TOXOCARA CANIS (DOG ROUNDWORM)
43. TRICHINELLA

44. ANIMALS THAT HAVE BEEN INFESTED WITH PARASITES SHOW VARIOUS SIGNS WHICH MAKE IT EASIER TO DIAGNOSE PARASITISM IN ANIMALS.
45. DIARRHEA:
46. THIS IS ONE OF THE MOST COMMON SYMPTOMS, AND CAN EASILY BY THE PRESENCE OF A DIRTY ANIMAL TAIL ANUS FREQUENTLY STAINED WITH DROPPINGS

1. WEIGHT LOSS: THE WORK OF THE PARASITES IS TO FEED ON THE HOST. WHEN PARASITES FEED ON ANIMALS, ANIMALS GET DEPRIVED OF THE ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS THAT ARE REQUIRED FOR PROPER FUNCTIONING OF THE BODY. BESIDES, ANIMALS THAT ARE INFESTED WITH PARASITES TEND TO EAT LESS DUE TO THE DAMAGE CAUSED BY THESE PARASITES IN THE ANIMA'S BODY.

2. ROUGH HAIRS:

“THE PRESENCE OF COARSE HAIR IS AN INDICATION THAT THE ANIMAL ISN'T GETTING ENOUGH NUTRIENTS. NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES LEAD TO DRYING OF THE ANIMAL SKIN AND LOSS OF HAIR” WHENEVER A FARMER NOTICES ANY CHANGE IN THE LOOK OF THE ANIMAL BODILY, HE SHOULD PROMPLY SEEK THE SERVICES OF VERTIRINARY DOCTOR

3. FAST BREATHING:
THIS IS MOSTLY CAUSED BY LUNGWORMS. THIS TYPES OF PARASITE OR WORMS ATTACKS THE LUNGS DIRECTLY THEREBY CAUSING THE LUNGS OF AN INFECTED ANIMAL TO MALFUNCTION. ANIMALS WILL BREATHE FASTER SO THAT THEY CAN GET ENOUGH OXYGEN INTO THEIR LUNGS.

4. SEVERE COUGHING:
THIS IS MAINLY CAUSED BY IRRITATION OF THE DAMAGED BRONCHIOLES. THIS IS EASILY RECOGNIZED AS THE INFECTED ANIMAL WILL BE GROWING THINNER BY THE DAY. REDDISH EYES IS ALSO ANOTHER SYMPTOM

5. ANEMIA:
ANEMIA IN ANIMALS IS CAN BE EASILY IDENTIFIED BY THE PRESENCE OF WHITE EYES AND THE GUMS DUE TO EXCESSIVE BLOOD LOSS. GENERAL WEAKNESS AND CONTINUOUS SLEEPING SYNDROME

PREVENTIVE MEASURES

6. THE MAIN AIM OF PREVENTION IS TO REDUCE THE ANIMAL'S EXPOSURE TO PARASITES BY ENSURING THAT THEY ARE FEEDING ON CLEAN PLACES, AVOIDING OVERCROWDING OF PENS AND ALSO REGULAR DE-WORMING OF THE ANIMALS.
7. IT IS ALSO IMPORTANT TO MAKE SURE THAT YOU PROVIDE THE RIGHT NUTRIENTS TO THE ANIMALS THAT WILL ENABLE THEM TO BOOST IMMUNITY AND HENCE FIGHT THESE PARASITES.

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Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION


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