TYPES OF ANIMAL NUTRITION




ANIMAL NUTRITION

1. Identify types of feed. 2. Identify types of feeding materials and equipment.

Introduction Nutrition refers to the art and science of feeding animals. Food nutrients are called nutrients. Different types of feeds contain different types of nutrients.

9.1 Types of Feeds Generally feeds may be classified into:
(a) Concentrates
(b) Succulents
(c) Roughages
(d) Supplements and additives.




animal nutrition nutrition refers back to the art and technological know-how of feeding animals.





meals vitamins are called nutrients. exclusive kinds of feeds carries different vitamins. kinds of feeds typically feeds can be labeled into:



(a) concentrates (b) succulents (c) roughages (d) supplements and components.



1. concentrates those are made up of: 1. cereals including maize, rice, millet, sorghum, and so on. those also are known as basal feeds or energy concentrates. 2. leguminous seeds along with groundnut cake, soya beans cake, and others consisting of palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake, these are plant protein concentrates. three. fish meal and blood meal. those are animal protein concentrates. concentrates are easily digested by way of farm animals. succulent feeds those include:





1. roots and tubers consisting of yam cassava, coco-yam, and so forth



2. vegetables such as water leaf and shoko(inexperienced vegetable)



3. forages together with pasture grasses

4. silage made from green clean grass five. cane molasses specifically from sugar cane succulent feeds are very high in water and are without difficulty digested by means of animals. most green vegetation may be used as succulent feeds while they may be younger.



3. roughage those include dry grasses which normally add bulk to animal feeds. examples are hay, straw. hay: that is grass cut, dried and preserved for animal destiny use.





4. dietary supplements and additives feed dietary supplements are added to the main feed to deliver one or greater nutrients which might be lacking inside the predominant feed. the following ought to function feed dietary supplements



: 1. cotton seed cake 2. soya bean meal three. groundnut cake 4. fish meal 5. bone meal 6. egg shell meal 7. oyster shell meal eight. salt-licks 9. limestone 10. vitamins the feed additives consist of:





1. antibiotics 2. amino acids 3. hormones and so forth. these help to stabilize the feeds as well as enhance at the pleasant and storability of the feeds. nine.2 feed nutrients many factors in varying combinations make up feed nutrients. these elements consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, flourine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and chromium. primarily based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal feeds can be categorized into six groups, viz: 1. carbohydrates supplying power, e.g cereals, roots and tubers, and so on



2. proteins

needed for growth and repair of worn out tissues, e.g legumes such as soya bean, cotton seed, groundnut cakes, and many others 3. fats offering electricity and retaining the frame temperature under control e.g. milk, coconuts, tubers, and so forth. 4. minerals they assist to carry out important body feature. examples are: calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so forth. 5. vitamins they help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins a, b, c, d, e and k 6. water this is a constituent of frame fluid. it allows to everyday frame temperature, lubricate joints, transport body substances and breakdown (digestions) of food. 9.3 forms of ration rations are categorized consistent with the reason they serve within the animals body. they include in: 1. maintenance ration this is the meals given to animals to keep their stay - weight constant. the ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to hold on its metabolic activities like respiratory, digestion, blood flow complement and sound asleep ration.





2. balanced ration ration supplied over and above that wished for protection purposes. the ration is mainly formulated to of the following functions: replica, work, fattening and so forth. instance is layers mash in hen. three. balanced ration this is the ration that consists of all of the vital nutrients wanted by using the body in the perfect share. the composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fat, minerals, vitamins well as water.



malnutrition:

malnutrition results whilst a ration does not provide all of the critical meals nutrients in the proper proportion. that is each in exceptional and amount. this could result if the meals in the animal may be very low in calorific cost and as a end result most effective little strength is furnished. this circumstance is referred to as marasmus. as an alternative the foot may be very rich in one nutrients along with carbohydrate and and bad in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.



malnutrition, as in flawed feeding, effects in vitamins deficiency illnesses consisting of rickets (negative formation of limbs) and ketosis (low stage of blood glucose). malnutrition may lead to:



(i) retarded boom within the a

(ii) low manufacturing

(iii) bodily deformities

(iv) unwell-health



(v) demise. please if you find this contents useful

1. Concentrates

These are made up of:
1. Cereals such as maize, rice, millet, sorghum, etc. These are also referred to as basal feeds or energy concentrates. 2. Leguminous seeds such as groundnut cake, soya beans cake, and others such as palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake. These are plant protein concentrates.

3. Fish meal and blood meal.
These are animal protein concentrates.
Concentrates are easily digested by farm animals. Succulent Feeds These consist of:
1. Roots and tubers such as yam cassava, cocoyam, etc
2. Vegetables such as water leaf and shoko
3. forages such as pasture grasses
4. silage made from green fresh grass
5. Cane molasses mainly from sugar cane Succulent feed are very high in water and are easily digested by animals.
Most green crops can be used as succulent feeds when they are young.



C. Roughages

These consist of dry grasses which usually add bulk to animal feeds.
Examples are Hay, Straw. Hay: This is grass cut. dried and preserved for animals future use.


D. Supplements and Additives Feed

supplements are added to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients which might be lacking in the main feed. The following could serve as feed supplements:
1. Cotton seed cake
2. Soya bean meal
3. Groundnut cake
4. Fish meal
5. Bone meal
6. Egg shell meal
7. Oyster shell meal
8. Saltlicks
9. Limestone
10. Vitamins






The

feed additives

include:

1. Antibiotics 2. Amino acids 3. Hormones and so on.

These help to stabilize the feeds as well as improve on the quality and storability of the feeds.

9.2 Feed Nutrients
Many elements in varying combinations make up feed nutrients. These elements include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, flourine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and caromium.
Based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal feeds can be classified into six groups, viz:
1. Carbohydrates Supplying energy, e.g cereals, roots and tubers, etc
2. Proteins Needed for growth and repair of worn out tissues, e.g legumes such as soya bean, cotton seed, groundnut cakes, etc
3. Fats Supplying energy and keeping the body temperature under control e.g. milk, coconuts, tubers, etc.
4. Minerals They helo to carry out vital body function. Examples are: calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so on.
5. Vitamins
They help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins A, B,C,D, E and K

6. Water
This is a constituent of body fluid. It helps to regular body temperature, lubricate joints, transport body materials and breakdown (digestions) of food.

Types of Ration
Rations are classified according to the purpose they serve in the animals body. They include in:
1. Maintenance Ration
This is the food given to animals to keep their live - weight constant. The ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to carry on its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood circulation compliment and sleeping ration.
2. Balanced Ration
Ration supplied over and above that needed for maintenance purposes. The ration is specially formulated to of the following purposes: reproduction, work, fattening and so on. Example is layers mash in poultry.
3. Balanced Ration This is the ration that contains all the essential nutrients needed by the body in the correct proportion.
The composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins well as water. Malnutrition: Malnutrition results when a ration does not provide all the essential food nutrients in the correct proportion. That is both in quality and quantity. This could result if the food In the animal is very low in calorific value and as a result only little energy is supplied.
This condition is called marasmus. Alternatively the foot may be very rich in one nutrients such as carbohydrate and and poor in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.

Malnutrition

as in improper feeding, results in nutrients deficiency diseases such as
rickets- (poor formation of limbs) and




ketosis -(low level of blood glucose)


Malnutrition may lead to:
(i) retarded growth in the a
(ii) low production
(iii) physical deformities
(iv) ill-health (v) death. 9.4

Feeding Equipment for Animals
1. Feeding Troughs DIAGRAM Figure 2.9. la:
Wooden Feeding Trough DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.1 b:
Aluminum Feeding Trough Prepared feeds are put inside for the animal

2. Water Troughs DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.2a: Plastic Water Trough used for Chicks DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.2b: 4 ½ litres water trough made of aluminum used by older birds,


STUDY QUESTIONS 1. List three main types of feeds ad give two examples of each.
2. Classify animal feeds based on the nutrients they supply
3. Explain the following terms: i. Maintenance ration ii. Production ration

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
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112.
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113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
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PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
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PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION



4. Give four effects of malnutrition in farm animals. 5. List ten feed supplements and additives that a farmer, could add to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients that ma\ be lacking.

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