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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE Farm mechanization has the following advantages 1. ...

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crop rotation, mixed farming and mono cropping system of farming



CROPPING SYSTEMS




1. Identify and explain the different cropping systems.

advantages and disadvantages of each cropping system

The way a farmland is cropped varies from one farmer to the other system adopted may depend on the available farmland, the of agriculture (whether subsistence or commercial), the need of the farmer and so on. The following are the cropping systems commonly practiced by farmers.





1 Mono-cropping
This is the growing of only one type of crop (such as maize) on a piece of land. It could be for a season or for several years as in some farming system.
The system is also termed sole cropping.
what is crop rotation within the classification of crop
Advantages

1. It makes possible the use of machines in farm operation. 2. It leads higher productivity per hectare, 3. It also leads to specialization among farmers. 4. The control of weeds is easy. This is because herbicides can be used


Disadvantages

1. It is risky because crop failure arising from pest, diseases or weather conditions will result in total loss of income to the farmer for that year.

2. The system encourages the rapid spread of pests and diseases on the farm.

3. Labour may not be efficiently utilized throughout the year.

4. It does not afford the farmer a variety of crops.







2.

Mixed cropping


READ MORE ABOUT PLANTING PROCESS HERE
This is also called multiple cropping because it involves the planting of more than one type of crop on the same farmland at a time.
It is very common under subsistence agriculture and in are where farmlands are limited. Under mixed cropping, the farmer could practice any of the following:
1. Farmers can keep their farms under continuous production.
2. There are no real need of artificial fertilizers which sometimes is very expensive.
3. The mixing of crops can help slow the spread of pest and other diseases in the growing season.
4. It also reduces the effects of adverse weather conditions for the farmer as planting and harvest is at different times of the season.
5. There are more land to be farmed with the same amount of labor and machinery.
6. According to some data present online, there is 10-30% increase in the yield in mixed farming versus monoculture.
7. There is no need in buying new implements every year for the cultivation of same crops
8. This system is a powerful way to improve agricultural yield
1. Some plant crops are very specific in the type of soil they need for effective growth.
2. This type of farming system is practiced in relation to the type of land available
3. Crops are not selected in mixed farming practices.
4. Crops for mixed farming can actively compete with one another for nutrients as a re it is difficult in choosing crops for planting
5. It also may reduce the fertility of the soil as more than one crop is grown at a time in the same piece of land.

(a) Inter-planting:

This is the growing of two crops together on the same land. The crop which was planted first is also harvest first while the one planted last remains on the plot to harvested later.

An example is the growing of maize and together. Maize, which is usually planted first, is also harvest first. Maize is therefore said to be inter-planted with yam.
LEARN MORE ABOUT MAIZE AS A CROP HERE

(b) Inter-cropping:

This is when two crops are grown together with the crop planted last being harvested first.
Usually the c planted last has shorter lifespan than the one planted first, example is the planting of melon after yam has been plant The melon will be harvested first while the yam continues on plot. Yam is therefore said to be inter-cropped with melon.

Advantages 1.

It affords the farmer a variety of crops.

2. It serves as insurance against the failure of one type of crops.

3. It minimizes the spread of diseases and pests on the farm.

4. It enables the crops to make efficient use of soil nutrients.

5. The ensures efficient utilization of labour throughout the year.

i. Inter-cropping gives additional yield income/unit area than mono-cropping.
ii. It acts as a cover against failure of crops in year of low yield
iii. Inter-crops improves the soil fertility as the nutrient of plants is made from both layers of soil.
iv. Reduces soil erosion and controls the growth of weeds.
v. Inter-cropping provide shade and support to the other crop.
vi. Inter cropping system uses resources efficiently
vii. Inter-cropping with cash crops is higher profitable.
viii. It helps to avoid inter-crop competition

Disadvantages

1. It does not encourage the use of machines on the farm.

2. It may lead to rapid exhaustion of soil nutrients if legumes not included.

3. It is labour intensive.

4. Pests and disease agents may persist on the farmland. This is because there are always food and alternative hosts for them.
a. Yield decreases as the crops have different competitive abilities.
b. Management of crops having different cultural practices seems very difficult
c. Improved tools cannot be used effectively.
d. Higher amount of fertilizer
e. Harvesting is difficult.



3. Continuous cropping

THE GROWING OF CROPS EACH YEAR IN SUCCESSION, WITHOUT A PERIOD OF FALLOW, WHICH ALLOWS SOIL FERTILITY TO RECOVER
This is the practice of putting a farmland under cultivation continuously, that is. from year to year. It may take any of forms:
READ ABOUT PLANTING PROCESS HERE

(a) Annual cropping:

Planting annual crops which are replaced after harvesting. This means the land is cleared, tilled and cropped every season.
This is common where land is scarce






(b) Permanent cropping:
This involves planting and maintaining the crops, usually planting permanent crops continuously on a farm is also known as plantation farming.


Advantages

1. It reduces the cost of land preparation after the initial clearing and tilling.

2 It enables the farmer to construct permanent structures such as storage structures on the farm.

3 It tan be practiced where land is scarce.



Disadvantages


1. The fertility of the soil is easily exhausted.

2. It leads to destruction of soil structure.

3. It encourages soil erosion.

4. Yields me normally reduced with increasing years of cropping.

5. It encourages build-up of crop pests and disease agents.

6. It required high amount of money to keep the land fertile and productive.


4. Crop Rotation

This involves the planting of different types of crop in different plots on a farmland during one season; and at the beginning of the next season, the crops are changed from their respective plots, while following a definite order or sequence.
The system combines mixed cropping with continuous cropping and is mainly practiced by institutions of learning. For crop rotation to be successful,
certain principles must be followed Principles of Crop Rotation

(a) The same type of crop should not be allowed to follow each other on the same plot. For example, maize should not follow maize.

(b) Crops that belong to the same group should not also follow each other on the same plot, e.g. cassava should not follow yam, or to follow maize.

(c) Crops that have deep roots like yam and cassava, should be followed with those that have shallow roots such as maize and groundnut.

(d) Crops that consume a lot of nitrogen such as the-cereal group should be followed by those that add nitrogen to the soil such as maize and the legume group,

(e) Crops likely to be affected by the same disease and/or pest should not follow each other on the same plot. The number of crops involved in the rotation will determine the. type of rotation.
Therefore, there could be a two-year, three-year, or tour-year crop rotation. How to Design a Four-Year Crop Rotation


(a) Divide the farmland into four plots.

(b) Choose the crops to cultivate.

(c) Plant one crop on each plot, making sure the principles guiding the adoption of the system are adhered to.



(4) At the end of one season, shift the crop from plot B to A, C to B, D to C and A to D as shown in Figure 3.2.1.


(5) Follow this sequence until the fourth year is reached.
Year
Plot A
Plot B
Plot C
Plot D
1 Maize Cassava Groundnut Yam and Melon
2 Cassava Groundnut Yam and Melon Maize
3 Groundnut Yam and Melon Maize Cassava
4 Yam and Melon Maize Cassava Groundnut Figure 3.2.1:
A Four-Year Crop Rotation,




Advantages

1. It helps to maintain soil fertility.

2. It makes efficient use of soil nutrients.

3. The farmer has access to a variety of crops.

4. It minimizes the spread of diseases and pests and helps to check weeds

5. It reduces soil erosion.

6. It leads to efficient utilization of labour.

7. It is a good practice where land is scarce.

8. PEST MANAGEMENT
9. INSECTS
10 TREATMENT OF DISEASES
11. WEEDS)
12. IMPROVEMENT OF SOIL PROPERTIES:
I3. IT INCREASES ORGANIC MATTER
I4 .IMPROVES SOIL FERTILITY
15. DISTRIBUTION OF LABOR INPUTS:
16. PLANTING TIMES
17. HARVESTING

PERIOD OF FALLOW, WHICH ALLOWS SOIL FERTILITY TO RECOVER




Disadvantages

1. It is labour intensive.

2. Crop yields may decrease with years except additional manures or fertilizers are applied.

3. It leads to destruction of soil structure which may facilitate soil erosion.



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CROPPING SYSTEMS



1. Identify and explain the different cropping systems.

2. Give the advantages and disadvantages of each cropping system







The way a farmland is cropped varies from one farmer to the other system adopted may depend on the available farmland, the type of agriculture (whether subsistence or commercial), the need of the farmer and so on. It is worthy of note that farming practice is not static as such it is evolving. So in this article we shall consider the most widely practiced farming system the world over



The following are the cropping systems commonly practiced by farmers.



1 Mono-cropping

This is the growing of only one type of crop (such as maize) on a piece of land. It could be for a season or for several years as in plantation farming. The system is also termed sole cropping. Most often this type of farming practice involves mechanization.



Advantages

1. It makes possible the use of machines in farm operation.

2. It leads higher productivity per hectare,

3. It also leads to specialization among farmers.

4. The control of weeds is easy. This is because herbicides can be used

5. It employs more labor thereby leading to greater harvest



Disadvantages

1. It is risky because crop failure arising from pest, diseases or weather conditions will result in total loss of income to the farmer for that year.

2. The system encourages the rapid spread of pests and diseases on the farm.

3. Labour may not be efficiently utilized throughout the year.

4. It does not afford the farmer a variety of crops.

5. Most often it requires high capital investment

6. It can’t be practiced within an area where there is community farming



2. Mixed cropping

This is also called multiple cropping because it involves the planting of more than one type of crop on the same farmland in one planting season. It is very common under subsistence agriculture and in are where farmlands are limited. Under mixed cropping, the farmer could practice any of the following:

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE


(a) Inter-planting: This is the growing of two crops together on the same land. The crop which was planted first is also harvest first while the one planted last remains on the plot to harvested later. An example is the growing of maize, cassava, groundnut, melon, yam and okra together on the same piece of land in one planting season. Maize, which is usually planted first, is also harvest first. Maize is therefore said to be inter-planted with yam.

(b) Inter-cropping: This is when two crops are grown together with the crop planted last being harvested first. Usually the c planted last has shorter lifespan than the one planted first, example is the planting of melon after yam has been plant The melon will be harvested first while the yam continues on plot. Yam is therefore said to be intercropped with melon.



Advantages

1. It affords the farmer a variety of crops.

2. It serves as insurance against the failure of one type of crops.

3. It minimizes the spread of diseases and pests on the farm.

4. It enables the crops to make efficient use of soil nutrients.

5. The ensures efficient utilization of labour throughout the year.



Disadvantages

1. It does not encourage the use of machines on the farm.

2. It may lead to rapid exhaustion of soil nutrients if legumes not included.

3. It is labour intensive.

4. Pests and disease agents may persist on the farmland. This is because there are always food and alternative hosts for them.

3. Continuous cropping

This is the practice of putting a farmland under cultivation continuously that is from year to year. It may take any of form: this type of farming practice usually lead to soil loss of nutrients, becoming acidic

(a) Annual cropping: Planting annual crops which are replaced after harvesting. This means the land is cleared, tilled and cropped every season. This is common where land is scarce. this type of farming is mostly practiced in the southern parts of Nigeria

(b) Permanent cropping: This involves planting and maintaining the crops, usually permanent crops continuously on the farm land, it usually in plantations.



Advantages

1 It reduces the cost of land preparation after the initial clearing and tilling.

2 It enables the farmer to construct permanent structures such as storage structures on the farm.

3 It can be practiced where land is scarce.



Disadvantages

1. The fertility of the soil is easily exhausted.

2. It leads to destruction of soil structure.

3. It encourages soil erosion.

4. Yields me normally reduced with increasing years of cropping.

5. It encourages build-up of crop pests and disease agents.

6. It required high amount of money to keep the land fertile and productive.



4. Crop Rotation

This involves the planting of different types of crop in different plots on a farmland during one season; and at the beginning of the next season, the crops are changed from their respective plots, while following a definite order or sequence. The system combines mixed cropping with continuous cropping and is mainly practiced by institutions of learning.

For crop rotation to be successful, certain principles must be followed



Principles of Crop Rotation

(a) The same type of crop should not be allowed to follow each other on the same plot. For example, maize should not follow maize.

(b) Crops that belong to the same group should not also follow each other on the same plot, e.g. cassava should not follow yam, or to follow maize.

(c) Crops that have deep roots like yam and cassava, should be followed with those that have shallow roots such as maize and groundnut.

(d) Crops that consume a lot of nitrogen such as the-cereal group should be followed by those that add nitrogen to the soil such as maize and the legume group,

(e) Crops likely to be affected by the same disease or pest should not follow each other on the same plot. The number of crops involved in the rotation will determine the type of rotation. Therefore, there could be a two-year, three-year, or tour-year crop rotation.



How to Design a Four-Year Crop Rotation

(a) Divide the farmland into four plots.

(b) Choose the crops to cultivate.

(c) Plant one crop on each plot, making sure the principles guiding the adoption of the system are adhered to.



(4) At the end of one season, shift the crop from plot B to A, C to B, D to C and A to D

(5) Follow this sequence until the fourth year is reached.









Year

Plot A

Plot B

Plot C

Plot D

1

Maize

Cassava

Groundnut

Yam and Melon

2

Cassava

Groundnut

Yam and Melon

Maize

3

Groundnut

Yam and Melon

Maize

Cassava

4

Yam and Melon

Maize

Cassava

Groundnut



Figure 3.2.1: A Four-Year Crop Rotation,





Advantages

1. It helps to maintain soil fertility.

2. It makes efficient use of soil nutrients.

3. The farmer has access to a variety of crops.

4. It minimize the spread of diseases and pests and helps to check weeds

5. It reduces soil erosion.

6. It leads to efficient utilization of labour.

7. It is a good practice where land is scarce.



Disadvantages

1. It is labour intensive.

2. Crop yields may decrease with years except additional manures or fertilizers are applied.

3. It leads to destruction of soil structure which may facilitate soil erosion.



I want to re-iterate here that the various cropping systems listed in this article are not the final list of the various farming practices, so as you read this article and there remembered any not listed here please feel free to leave your comment


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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE