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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE Farm mechanization has the following advantages 1. ...

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TYPES OF FARM BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE


FARM BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES

1. Identify different types of farm buildings and structures.
2. Outline the uses of the various buildings and structures.
3. Explain how the different buildings and structures on the farm can be maintained.

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Types of farm buildings and structures

Farming is mainly concerned with the production of plant and animal products. This production process cannot be completely achieved without some major facilities being available on the farm.
These basic facilities arc the farm buildings and structures. Farm buildings and structures are of different types. The types that may found on a farm will depend on the amount of capital at the farmer’s disposal, climatic conditions. Materials available for construction. the nature of the farm, the purpose for the construction and others.





Farm buildings All buildings on the farm are collectively referred to as farmstead. They include:
(a) Dwelling house: On large farms, there may be the need to have a house of residence for the farmer and his family, or farm workers like the farm manager and livestock attendants.

(b) Administrative building: This provides the headquarters or base of all operations on the farm. It is a building with office Space and facilities. It is usually located at the centre of the farm.

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(c) Animal (livestock) buildings: These are buildings meant to farm animals like poultry, goats, sheep, pigs, cattle,and the nature of Venture. For examples fowls may be reared in deep litter house, goats and sheep and cattle in a shed. Milking cows in pens, pigs in stye, e.t.c

(d) Workshop: This is a building used for the repair and servicing of farm machines and implements.

(e) Farm shop: This is a building where the products from the farm are sold out to members of the public.






(f) Farm store: The store is a building devoted to the safe-keeping of different items on the farm. These items could be processed farm products like bags of corn or rice, tools, machines and machine parts, chemicals, and so on.

g) Plant nurseries: These are buildings where young seedlings are raised before they are transplanted into the open field. Factors to Consider in Farmstead Construction

(a) Fertility of the soil: The least fertile areas of the farm should be used for construction of buildings.

(b) Topography: This has to do with the slope of the land. Flat land should be used to avoid the problem of erosion.

(c) Accessibility: Farm buildings should be constructed on parts of the farm that can be reached with ease. Such buildings should be linked with good paths to facilitate movement to and from the buildings.

(d) Protection: Farm buildings should be constructed in areas where they will be protected from wind destruction (that is, they should not be orientated along the windward slope): erosion, and fire hazards.

(e) The use of the building: The construction of a building will be influenced by its intended use and duration of use.

(f) Materials available: The materials available for construction are also considered before construction is embarked upon.
In some instances, sawn planks are used instead of cement blocks, while in others, split bamboos may be used. Farm structures Apart from concrete buildings, there are several other structures on the farm.

These structures could he of temporary or permanent nature. depending on their uses.

The following are the structures commonly found on the farm:


(a) Storage structure:
These are used for storing farm produce or different kinds. They include:

(i) Yam barn for storing yam tubers:
The yam barn is constructed by fitting vertical poles into the ground. Horizontal poles are tied to the vertical poles are fitted to the horizontal poles to which the yam tubers are tied singly in a horizontal position.

(ii) Silos: These are tower-like structures usually built of aluminum and are used for storing dried grains like maize and sorghum (guinea corn).

(iii) Cribs: These are structures used for storing unshelled maize on the farm. Processing structures: These are structures used for the processing of different kinds of produce on the farm.
They include cassava mill, rice mill, abattoir (for slaughtering animals) milk pasteurizing shed (for sterilizing fresh milk) fish/meal smoking or drying shed.

Fence:
This is a structure constructed round the farm. Fence could be any of the following types:
1. Barbed wire fence 2. Hedge or live fence 3. Post and rail fence 4. Wire netting fence 5. Wall fence 6. Electric fence.
Fence serves several purposes on the farm. These include:
1. To protect the crops and animals.
2. To demarcate boundaries.
3. To prevent thieves from gaining easy access to the farm.
4. To improve the grazing habit of animals such as in rotational grazing.
5. To control animal breeding habit.
6. To reduce the spread of pests and disease organisms
7. To add beauty to the farm.





(d) Gates and porter’s lodge: these are attached to the fence at the entrance into the farm. The gate is controlled by the mate-man who stays in the porter's lodge. It is used to control movement In ti out of the farm. Gates are also found in animal pens and fenced paddocks. They are used to control the movement of the animals.

(c) Other Structures include: Roads, electricity generating plant. Bore- holes and dam for supplying water to the farm, spray races .mil dips for removing ecto or external parasites from animals crushes for restricting animal movement, manure pits and water tanks.
A11 these are collectively referred to as utility structures.

Maintenance of farm buildings and structures

Buildings and structures on the farm require adequate maintenance if they are to last for a long time and perform the 1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE


67. COFFEE RUST1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES




146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE
functions they are meant for.
Therefore, it is necessary that the farmer carries out frequent and regular checks on all the structures on the farm to ensure that they are in proper form.
The following are some of the ways farm buildings and structures can he maintained:

1. Concreting The floors of buildings should be made of concrete to avoid cracking and wearing away. Concreted floors do not provide hideouts for rodents and other pests of farm produce.

2. Painting, Oiling or Greasing The wooden parts of buildings and structures should be painted with anti-insects chemicals such as sorghum to prevent them from being damaged by termites and other insects.
Also, metal parts should be painted with anti-rust paint especially tanks and other materials used in storing water. Other metal materials that arc likely to become rusty after sometime should be painted with oil paint, oiled, or greased.

3. Seasoning Wooden materials used in building and construction of farm structures should be seasoned, that is properly dried before being used. This will help to protect the wood from insect damage and the possibility of the structure becoming slacked after some times.

4. Regular inspection and repairs All farm structures should be checked frequently and age should be repaired without delay. The damaged parts of any building or structure should be-replaced new ones. Openings on the walls of building should Be covered to prevent rodents from in them.

5. Cleaning It is important to keep buildings and structures clean as this helps to prolong their lifespan. Water tanks should be cleaned always abattoris, milking sheds, processing structures and others need cleaning. Storage structures should be cleaned after the odd consignment has been removed before bringing in new ones.

6. Roofing The tops of farm buildings, should be properly roofed to make them rat proof. Asbestos, iron, or aluminum sheets should be used instead of thatched roofs. This helps to protect the buildings against too much sun, rainstorm, and rats.

7. Bracing of Walls Wall and heavy roofs should be supported by pillars to make them strong and prevent them from collapsing.


FACTORS TO CONSIDER BEFORE ERECTING FARM BUILDING

Factors to be considered in site selection;

Security

Nearness to a source of water

Topography

Direction of the prevailing wind

Direction of the sun

Personal whims and preference
Nearness to means of communication.

STUDY QUESTIONS 1. List fives types of farm buildings an five types of farm structures.give the uses of each of them.

2. State and explain five ways by which farm buildings and structures es can be maintained.


3. Enumerate five factors to consider in farmstead construction.

4. List four utility structures that are useful in a farm set up.

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