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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

what is pest and pests of crops




types of pest

Insect pest are those insects that cause physical damage to crops. Insects belong to the group arthropods.
Generally pests reduce crop yield both in quality and quantity.
Classify insect pests into feeding groups
Name important field and storage pest of crops
Identify nature of damage to crops
State preventive and control measures
State other important pests of crops
Identify the nature of their damage to crops
State the preventive and control measures

Classification of crop insect pest into main feeding groups

what is pest







A pest is an organism which causes damage to crops.

Insect pest are those insects that cause physical damage to crops. Insects belong to the group arthropods.
Generally pests reduce crop yield both in quality and quantity.
what is pest
1.

Biting and chewing insect pest

The mouth parts of pests in this group are especially adapted to biting and chewing of various plant parts.
The mouth parts are made up of two hard biting jaws (mandibles).

In addition to these,
they also have two jaws (maxillae).
They have two lips – flat upper lip (larum) and lower lip (labium) while the maxillae are used to push the crop parts into the mouth, the mandibles are used for the biting and chewing since they are very strong. These insects can feed on any part of the plant including leaves, fruits, stems, flowers and even roots.
what is pest
Some common biting and chewing insect pests are beetles, grasshoppers, termites, crickets, caterpillars of moths and butter flies, locust, army worms and so on.

They feed on many crops such as okro, maize, rice, vegetables, cassava and fruit trees.
DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.1a: Cricket DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.1B: Beetle DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.1c: Grasshopper DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.Id: Caterpillar

2. Piercing and Sucking Insect what is pest
The mouth parts of these insects are shaped like injection needles and are thus adapted to piercing (that is penetrating into the plant part) and sucking (that is removing plant fluid).
what is pest? These piercing and sucking habits of the insects lead to] destruction of plant tissues, development of holes through which disease organisms can enter into the plant system and transfer or harmful germs from diseased plants to healthy ones. All these leads to weakening and eventual death of the plants affected.

what is pest?
Good examples of piercing and sucking insect pests are
aphids (plant lice), cotton stainer, mealy bugs, capsid bugs, and scali insects DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.2A: Cotton Stainer

3.

Boring insect Pests

These are insects that bore into plant tissues and seeds, examples are stem borers of cereals and weevils such as beans, rice M maize weevils.
Other insects pests which may not fall into the above groups have been found to affect crops.

An example is the weaving insect which causes the folding of the leaves of crops particularly vegetables.

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE





49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES

56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON

90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION


147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

what is pest and their names

NAME OF PEST, CROPS AFFECTED, NATURE OF DAMAGE TO CROPS, PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES



1 Stem borer (Sesamia spp) Cereals e.g. rice, maize sorghum Pest eats up the juicy centres of stems thus causing the crop to collapse and die Burn all crop remains in the farm after harvest, uproot and burn affected crops. Spray with gammaling 20 or DDT.

2 Army worms - Grain crops e.g. Rice, Maize, Sorghum They eat up the leaves and stems of the crops leading to mechanical damage of crops. Plant early. Spray with an insecticide such as gammalin 20.

3 Earth worms--M0aize These larvae bore into the cobs or ears of maize thereby eating up the fresh grains Early planting spray with gammalin 20

4 Aphids Cocoa, groundnut, cowpea They bite and pierce through the outer texture of growing plants. Sucking out the sap leading to stunting, distortion and defoliation in affected plants Spray affected crops with insecticides

5 Pod Borers (Maruca tesulalis) Legumes e.g. Cowpea They cause damage to the tender parts of the plants, by eating up the flower buds and pods. This leads to reduction in yield. Plant with resistant varieties. Spray with gammalin 20 or diagram.

6 Variegated Grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates) Yam, vegetables, rice, cassava, etc. Eats up leaves of plants. Growing point and stem may be eaten too. Spray with gammalin 20 or vetox 85

7 Yam Beetle (Heteroligus meles) Yam Feeds on tubers of yams in the soil causing holes on them Dust yam planting materials with aldrin dust before planting.

8 Cassava mealy bug (phenacoccus Manihoti) Cassava Affected plants become stunted since the internodes are reduced. The tip begins to develop bunchy tops, the leaves die off finally, the whole plant looks like a candle stick. Plant early. Dip cassava cuttings in 0.1% Rogor or ultracide solution for 1 minute before planting

9 Capsids Cocoa The insects attack young shoots of cocoa and introduce toxic saliva into the plant. This kills the plant Spraying with gammalin 20

10 Cotton stainer (dysdercus superstitutious) Cotton Attacks opening cotton bolls thus staining the lint Spray with insecticide

11 Weevils Rice, maize, beans Eat up the cotyledons of stored products Spray with insecticide

12 Fruits worm The larva eats up the fruits Spray with vetox 85

13 Termites Oil palm, cassava, sugar cane, yam, etc They destroy roots and seedlings of plants especially when young Spray with aldrex 40. Water crops regularly in the dry season.

14 Boll worms Cotton They eat up succulent boll. Bolls drop off prematurely Pick and burn affected bolls. Spray with insecticides

8.3 Other Pests of Crops

what is pest? a pest can be a bird as long as it is destroying farm produce
1. Bird

These attack mainly grain crops such as maize, rice, sorghum and barley. They also attack fruits in the field.

Examples of these birds are Weaver birds
(Quela), parrots, etc. DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.4: A Bird.
what is pest
(a) Nature of Damage: They peck out planted seeds, eat up grains on the field and destroy leaves of some plants such as oil palm. They also eat ripe fruits such as pawpaw, mango, and cashew.

(b) Control:
1. Use of scare crows
2. Spraying chemieals such as furadan with aircraft,
3. Shooting with catapult or gun. DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.5:
Scare Crow for birds and mammalian pest in farms.

what is pest? a pest can be a rodent, as long as it is destroying farm produce
2. Rodents
These include rats, grass-cutters, African rabbits and hare. DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.6: A Rodent
(Grass-cutter)

(a) Nature of Damage:
They cut down and eat various parts of the crop especially cereal and tuber crops. Grass-cutters eat up rice, young palm seedlings and maize plants. Rats eat up stored produce like tubers and grains. Hare eat up planted grains.

(b) Control:

(i) Use of poison baits
(ii) Use of traps
(iii) By shooting with guns,
(iv) Use of rat gums.


what is pest? a pest can be a mammal, as long as it is destroying farm produce
3. Other Mammalian Pests
These include monkey, deer, antelopes and bush pig.
They do a lot of damage to crops in the farm by uprooting eating them up.

For example, monkey eat up plantains, banana maize and cocoa pods.

Control:
(i) Trapping (ii) Shooting with gun.
DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.7a: Monkey

DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.7b: Giant Rat (Cricetomys gambianus).

STUDY QUESTIONS 1. How can insect pests be classified using their feeding habits?
2. (a) Name 10 insect pests you know. (b) For each one, slate the crop it affects, the damage done to the crop and control measure of the pest.
3. (a) Apart from insect pest, mime three other pests you blow. (b) Which crops do they affect? (b) flow can they be controlled?

what is pest? a pest can be a bird as long as it is destroying farm produce
4. Classify the following into biting and chewing, piercing and sucking, and boring insect pests:- Beetles, Aphids. stem boreres, caps ids, weevils, locusts, mealybugs, crickets, cotton stainer, 5. Itemise >>>>> you would use for rodents attack on your farm.
for the purpose of this subject, here is a few lists of pests of crops,
African black beetle (Heteronychus arator)
Amnemus weevil (Amnemus sp.)
Ants, Seed harvesting (Pheidole)
Aphids (various)
Aphid, Soybean (Aphis glycine)
Aphid, Spotted alfalfa (Therioaphis trifolii)
Aphid, Turnip (Lipaphis erysimi)
Aphid, Wheat (Rhopalosiphum padi)
Armyworms (various)
Armyworm, Common (Leucania convecta)
Armyworm, Dayfeeding (Spodoptera exempta)
Armyworm, Lawn (Spodoptera mauritia)
Armyworm, Lesser (Spodoptera exigua)
Armyworm, Northern (Mythimna separata)
Armyworm, Sugarcane (Leucania stenographa)
Australian plague locust (Chortoicetes terminifera)
Bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli)
Bean leafroller (Omiodes diemenalis)
Bean looper or Mocis (Mocis alterna)
Bean podborer (Maruca vitrata)
Bean spider mite (Tetranychus ludeni)
Beet webworm (Spoladea recurvalis)
Black field cricket (Teleogryllus commodus, T. oceanicus, Lepidogryllus parvulus)
Black field earwig (Nala lividipes)
Black leaf beetle (Rhyparida nitida)
Black sunflower scarab (Pseudoheteronyx sp.)
Bluegreen aphid (Acyrthosiphon kondoi)
Blue oat mite (Penthaleus major)
Brown bean bug, Large (Riptortus serripes)
Brown bean bug, Small (Melanacanthus scutellaris)
Brown flea beetle (Chaetocnema sp.)
Brown mirid (Creontiades pacificus)
Brown pasture looper (Ciampa arietaria)
Brown shield bug (Dictyotus caenosus)
Brown wheat mite (Petrobia latens)
Bruchid, Cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus)
Cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae)
Cabbage moth (Plutella xylostella)
Castor oil looper (Achaea janata)
Click beetle (Agrypnus spp.)
Clover springtail (Sminthurus viridis)
Cluster caterpillar (Spodoptera litura)
Cockroach, Wingless (Calolampra spp.)
Common armyworm (Leucania convecta)
Common grass blue butterfly (Zizina labradus)
Corn aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis)
Corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera)
Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii)
Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera)
Cotton harlequin bug (Tectocoris diophthalmus)
Cotton leafhopper (Amrasca terraereginae)
Cotton leafperforator (Bucculatrix gossypii)
Cotton looper (Anomis flava)
Cottonseed bug (Oxycarenus luctuosus)
Cotton seedling thrip (Thrips tabaci)
Cotton tipworm (Crocidosema plebejana)
Cotton webspinner (Achyra affinitalis)
Cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora)







Cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus)
Cricket, Black field (Teleogryllus commodus, T. oceanicus, Lepidogryllus parvulus)
Crop mirid (Sidnia kinbergi)
Cutworm (Agrotis spp.)
Dayfeeding armyworm (Spodoptera exempta)
Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella)
Dried fruit beetle (Carpophilus spp.)
Locust, Yellow-winged (Gastrimargus musicus)
Locust, Spur-throated (Austracris (Noamdacris) guttulosa)
Loopers (various)
Looper, Bean or Mocis (Mocis alterna)
Looper, Brown pasture (Ciampa arietaria)
Looper, Castor oil (Achaea janata)
Eastern false wireworm (Pterohelaeus spp.)
Earwig, Black field (Nala lividipes)
Etiella moth (Etiella behrii)
False wireworm (Pterohelaeus and Gonocephalum spp.)
Flea beetles, Brown and Redheaded (Chaetocnema and Nisostra sp.)
Flower beetle (Carpophilus spp.)
Grasshoppers and locusts (various)
Grasshopper, Wingless (Phaulacridium vittatum)
)
Helicoverpa species (armigera, punctigera)
Jassids (leafhoppers) (various)
Lawn armyworm (Spodoptera mauritia)
Leafhoppers (jassids) (various)
Leafhopper, cotton (Amrasca terraereginae)
Leafhopper, lucerne (Austroasca alfalfae)
Leafhopper, maize (Cicadulina bimaculata
Leafhopper, vegetable (Austroasca viridigrisea)
Legume webspinner (Omiodes diemenalis)
Lesser armyworm (Spodoptera exigua)
Light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana)
Locust, Australian plague (Chortoicetes terminifera)
Locust, Migratory (Locusta migratoria)
Looper, Cotton (Anomis flava)
Looper, Sugarcane (Mocis frugalis)
Looper, Soybean (Thysanoplusia orichalcea)
Looper, Tobacco (Chrysodeixis argentifera)
Looper, Vegetable (Chrysodeixis eriosoma)
Mocis trifasciata no common name
Pantydia spp .
Lucerne crownborer (Zygrita diva)
Lucerne flea (Sminthurus viridis)
Lucerne leafhopper (Austroasca alfalfae)
Lucerne leafroller (Merophyas divulsana)
Lucerne seed wasp (Bruchophagus roddi)
Lucerne seed web moth (Etiella behrii)
Maize leafhopper (Cicadulina bimaculata)
Maize thrips (Frankliniella williamsi)
Mealybug (Family Psuedococcidae)
Mealybug, solenopsis (Phenacoccus solenopsis)
Midge, Sorghum (Stenodiplosis sorghicola)
Migratory locust (Locusta migratoria)
Mirids (Creontiades and Sidnia spp.)
Mites (various)
Aphid, Bluegreen (Acyrthosiphon kondoi)
Aphid, Cabbage (Brevicoryne brassicae)
Aphid, Corn (Rhopalosiphum maidis)
Aphid, Cotton (Aphis gossypii)
Aphid, Cowpea (Aphis craccivora)
Aphid, Green peach (Myzus persicae)
Aphid, Oat (Rhopalosiphum padi)
Aphid, Pea (Acyrthosiphon pisum)
Aphid, Rice root (Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis)
Aphid, Rose grain (Metopolophium dirhodum)
Mite, Bean spider (Tetranychus ludeni)
Mite, Brown wheat (Petrobia latens)
Mite, Blue oat (Penthaleus major)
Mite, Peanut (Paraplonobia spp.)
Mite, Redlegged earth (Halotydeus destructor)
Mite, Strawberry spider (Tetranychus lambi) Greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum)
Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae)
Green mirid (Creontiades dilutus)
Green vegetable bug (Nezara viridula)
Green stink bug (Plautia affinis)
Grey cluster bug (Nysius clevelandensis

Mite, Two-spotted (Tetranychus urticae)
Mocis alterna (bean looper)
Mocis frugalis (sugarcane looper)
Mocis trifasciata
Monolepta (red-houldered leaf beetle) , (Monolepta australis)
for the comprehensive lists A-Z please read here my credit goes to them


8.3 Other Pests of Crops
1. Bird
These attack mainly grain crops such as maize, rice, sorghum and barley. They also attack fruits in the field. Examples of these birds are Weaver birds (Quela), parrots, etc.

DIAGRAM
Figure 2.8.4: A Bird.

(a) Nature of Damage: They peck out planted seeds, eat up grains on the field and destroy leaves of some plants such as oil palm. They also eat ripe fruits such as pawpaw, mango, and cashew.
(b) Control

1. Use of scare crows
2. Spraying chemieals such as furadan with aircraft,
3. Shooting with catapult or gun.
DIAGRAM

Figure 2.8.5: Scare Crow for birds and mammalian pest in farms.

2. Rodents
These include rats, grass-cutters, African rabbits and hare.








(a) Nature of Damage: They cut down and eat various parts of the crop especially cereal and tuber crops. Grass-cutters eat up rice, young palm seedlings and maize plants. Rats eat up stored produce like tubers and grains. Hare eat up planted grains.

(b) Control:
(i) Use of poison baits
(ii) Use of traps
(iii) By shooting with guns,
(iv) Use of rat gums.

3. Other Mammalian Pests
These include monkey, deer, antelopes and bush pig.
They do a lot of damage to crops in the farm by uprooting eating them up. For example, monkey eat up plantains, banana maize and cocoa pods.

Control:
(i) Trapping

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