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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE Farm mechanization has the following advantages 1. ...

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Types of Farming System in agriculture

Farming System in agriculture

Agricultural systems have been used over the years by farmers to produce foods for humanity. These systems are affected by climatic conditions, vegetation and crops in different areas. This means that these factors in no small way determine the type of system that could be used in an area for production.

Shifting Cultivation

This is the practice of farming on a piece of land for some years then abandoning it for another piece of land.
It is mainly used under subsistence agriculture and in areas with abundant farmland. Under this practice, the farmer may not return to the Hire land in life.


At times, however, he may return after the land has been left fallow (that is, without cultivation) for several years. The period of no cultivation is termed fallow period, hence this system is also called bosh fallowing.

Advantages

1. It helps to replenish the fertility of the soil in a natural way.

2. It prevents the rapid spread of crop pests-and diseases.





3. It helps to control soil erosion.
4. The system reduces farmers' cost of production in terms of erosion control practices and fertilizer usage.

read about pre-planting practices in agriculture here

Disadvantages

1. A lot of time and energy is usually spent by farmers in preparing fresh land for planting. 2. It leads to the destruction of valuable forest resources such as wildlife and timber trees. 3. It helps to control soil erosion.

4. The system reduces farmers cost of production in terms of erosion control practices and fertilizer usage. 2. Land Rotation This is a modified system of shifting cultivation or bush falllowing. The system involves dividing an available farmland into portions. The farmer (then) farms on one portion for some time before moving to the next portion, in a definite order. This illustrated below: Figure 3.1.1: Land Rotation The system is practiced in areas where farmlands are limited ai1








1 . it helps to main the fertility of the soil. 2. It also helps to reduce the build-up of pests and disease organisms. 3. It reduces soil erosion. Disadvantages 1. The system does not encourage production of permanent crops such as cocoa 2. Diseases and pests can spread easily from old plot tn new .
2. Pastoral farming This system involves the rearing of animals that feed on forage crops (grasses and legumes), such as goats, sheep and cattle.

Pastoral farming could take any of these two forms:


(a) Ranching: This is a system of keeping animals in a fenced expanse of land containing forages (grasses and legumes) for them to feed on. Examples are Obudu cattle ranch, in Cross River State, Igarra cattle ranch in Edo State.

(b) Nomadic herding:

This involves the movement of grazing animals from one place to another in search of fresh pasture and ' water. This is mainly practiced by the Fulani nomads of northern Nigeria. This system is also called pastoral nomadism or pastoral farming.

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON





70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

Advantages

1. It provides a source of animal protein.

2. The system is not too costly because natural grasses are fed upon by the animals.
3. Less labour is required as;one man can cater for a large number of animals.


Disadvantages

1. It is highly laborious for the herdsmen particularly the nomads.
2. Animals can only be reared in grassland areas where they can have access to feed.
3. The productivity of the animals is affected by availability of pasture crops. The latter is affected by seasonal changes.

Mixed Farming

This is the combination of crop production with animal production on the same farmland. This is mainly practised on commercial farms where large units of livestock such as poultry, pigs, etc. are kept along side the cultivation of crops like maize, rice, and vegetables.



Advantages
1. It ensures steady supply of income for the farmer.
2. It ensures against failure in one of the two enterprises (that is, crop production and animal production.
3. The farmer will be able to replenish the soil for crop cultivation using the manure from the animals.
4. The farmer can also supply feeds to the animals from the crop products.
5. The farmer and his family have access to good food obtained from both his crops and animals.
6. The animals may serve as source of power on the farm, e.g bullock can be used to pull ploughs or harrows. Disadvantages 1. It requires a great deal of knov4edge, skill, time and labour from the farm





2. When animals are reared on the same land where crops grown without fence, the animals may damage the crops.
3. It is expensive to operate - especially in respect of the skill personnel needed.


5.

Ley Farming

This system of farming is not so common in our communities except in experimental stations.
It involves alternating arable or production with the growing of forage crops on a piece of land, instance, a farmer may use a piece of land to grow food crops about two years and then use it for growing forage crops to animals for some other years.
The land is reploughed and planted with food crops again. The farm land is referred to as 'ley’ during the period it is covered with forages.

Advantages of ley farming

1. The pastures, especially the legume species help to replenish the soil fertility.

2. Soil erosion is controlled through the system because at no point in time is the land exposed completely for too long a time 3. It also helps to reduce the build-up of pests and disease agents on a farmland.
It is not easy to practice, hence the system is not popular in farming communities.
forage crops usually become weeds on the farm when they are is cropped with food crops and they are often difficult to terminate.

6. Taungya Farming
This is the system whereby food crops are grown alongside trees.
It involves clearing forest land (forest reserve). and food crops. Later, tree seedlings are planted in between crops to continue on the land after the food crops have been harvested.
The system is practiced in forest reserves in the southern part of Nigeria where the State Governments allow the use of forest reserves for farming.

Advantages of taungya farming
1. The fertility of the soil is usually high for crops to use for maximum productivity.
2. It is an economic way of replacing unwanted forest with desirable tree species.
3. The land is always protected against erosion.
4. The timber seedlings are protected by the food crops in their early stage of life.
5. The system provides a source of income to the government.




Disadvantages of taungya farming
1. It leads to destruction of natural forests which may result in the loss of many forest resources.
2. At times, the needed forests may not develop because most farmers do not cater for the forest trees as they are left to die under heavy cropping with cassava or plantains.
3. The system does not allow the cultivation of permanent crops such as cocoa, rubber, and oil palm.

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