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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

WEED CONTROL METHODS




WEED CONTROL METHODS


Weed control methods

There are several methods used in weed control. They can BE classified into:

(a) Mechanical or physical method.

(b) Cultural method.

(c) Biological method.

(d) Chemical method.

(a) Mechanical or physical method


1. Explain the meaning of weeds.
2. Identify common weed types.
3. Explain the harmful effects of weeds on crop plants
4. Enumerate various methods of controlling weeds.

(i) Hand pulling: 1 This is the pulling of weeds by hand in the farm. Though it is efficient, but only useful in small gardens and not large farms.








WEEDS CONTROL METHODS


(ii) Hoeing: The short or small hoe is very useful in weeding. It is used to cut the weed below the crown of the plant which gives, complete destruction of the shoot system. It is effective in the Weed control methods control of weeds either in pasture, home garden or row crops. Hoe can be used to weed from the furrow to the top of a ridge. Its use is however on a limited and it requires plenty of labour.
Weed control methods


(iii) Mowing: This method helps to prevent seed production in till of weeds. It removes all unsightly weed growth especially where weeds are too much for effective cultivation to take place. The method can be used to control weeds in lawns, plantation or fields. The mower is normally attached to a tractor or pulled by hand to move over the area to be cleared.


(iv) Flooding in Weed control methods: This is done by keeping the area to be weeded Hooded up to 20 cm of water for 3 to 8 weeks. This practice kill, the weeds because they can no longer receive air for a-.piration.


(v) Heat treatment: Heal can be used in controlling weeds. For instance nursery soil is sterilized to kill all weed parts and seeds. Fire ran be used to burn dry weeds on cultivated land before cultivation starts. Weed control methods


(vi) Smothering with non-Living materials: Weeds can be Followed by the use of mulch materials such, as papers, hulls from rice, manure, plastic materials or cellophane. These materials help to exclude sunlight and prevent shoot growth. The weeds then become etiolated (lose chlorophyll) and die off.


(vii) Culural method: This involves the use of cultural practices of crop production to reduce the growth of weeds on the farm. Such cultural practices include

Weed control methods

i. Burning of farmland: This kills weed parts, seeds and fruits both in the soil and on the surface.

ii. Tillage: Tillage helps to expose weed parts for destruction by sun or herbicides. They can also be hand picked and destroyed.

iii. Early planting: This ensures that crops are well established before the weeds start growing.

iv. Good spacing: Proper spacing of crops helps in the reduction of weeds along the crop rows. It also makes it easy for weeding to he done.

v. Mixed cropping: Planting or two or more crops, together oil the same farmland can help to reduce the intensity of weeds on the larm

(c)

Biological method


This involves the use of living plants and animals to control weeds. They include:

(i) Use of suppressive plants: Crops that grow fast and large too can be used to overshadow weeds thereby reducing their growth, Also, cover crops such as melon and legumes like groundnut can be used to control weeds on the farm.

(ii) Use of insects: This involves the use of identified insect pests weeds in controlling weeds on the farm. Insects which have been found to feed on a particular weed can be multiplied and introduced to the area to feed and destroy such weed species.

(iii) Pasturing: This involves the grazing of farm animals on weeds usually in plantations such as rubber and oil palm. Animals like i cattle, sheep or goat are commonly used in this method.








(d)

Chemical method


This is the method that is used on a large scale. It makes use of chemicals in the control of weeds. These chemicals are known as herbicides. They are sprayed either on the leaves of weeds or applied to the soil. They are classified into:

(i) Selective herbicides: These are chemicals that can kill certain groups or species of plants. Example is 2, 4 -D (Dichlorophen-oxyacetic acid). They can be used in cereals, sugar cane and soya beans farms to reduce weeds.


Weed control methods
(i) Mowing: This method helps to prevent seed production in till of weeds. It removes all unsightly weed growth especially where weeds are too much for effective cultivation to take place. The method can be used to control weeds in lawns, plantation or fields. The mower is normally attached to a tractor or pulled by hand to move over the area to be cleared.
Weed control methods

(ii) Flooding: This is done by keeping the area to be weeded Hooded up to 20 cm of water for 3 to 8 weeks. This practice kill, the weeds because they can no longer receive air for a-.piration.


1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION

40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS









90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

Weed control methods
(iii) Heat treatment: Heal can be used in controlling weeds. For instance nursery soil is sterilized to kill all weed parts and seeds. Fire ran be used to burn dry weeds on cultivated land before cultivation starts.


(iv) Smothering with non-Living materials: Weeds can be Followed by the use of mulch materials such, as papers, hulls from rice, manure, plastic materials or cellophane. These materials help to exclude sunlight and prevent shoot growth. The weeds then become etiolated (lose chlorophyll) and die off.


(v) Culural method: This involves the use of cultural practices of crop production to reduce the growth of weeds on the farm. Such cultural practices include

YOU CAN READ DETAILS OF CULTURAL PRACTICES HERE


i. Burning of farmland: This kills weed parts, seeds and fruits both in the soil and on the surface.

ii. Tillage: Tillage helps to expose weed parts for destruction by sun or herbicides. They can also be hand picked and destroyed.

iii. Early planting: This ensures that crops are well established before the weeds start growing.

iv. Good spacing: Proper spacing of crops helps in the reduction of weeds along the crop rows. It also makes it easy for weeding to he done.

v. Mixed cropping: Planting or two or more crops, together oil the same farmland can help to reduce the intensity of weeds on the larm

(c)

Biological method


This involves the use of living plants and animals to control weeds. They include:

(i) Use of suppressive plants: Crops that grow fast and large too can be used to overshadow weeds thereby reducing their growth, Also, cover crops such as melon and legumes like groundnut can be used to control weeds on the farm.

(ii) Use of insects: This involves the use of identified insect pests weeds in controlling weeds on the farm. Insects which have been found to feed on a particular weed can be multiplied and introduced to the area to feed and destroy such weed species.
Weed control methods
(iii) Pasturing: This involves the grazing of farm animals on weeds usually in plantations such as rubber and oil palm. Animals like i cattle, sheep or goat are commonly used in this method. Weed control methods

(d)

Chemical method

Weed control methods
This is the method that is used on a large scale. It makes use of chemicals in the control of weeds. These chemicals are known as herbicides. They are sprayed either on the leaves of weeds or applied to the soil. They are classified into: Weed control methods

(i) Selective herbicides: These are chemicals that can kill certain groups or species of plants. Example is 2, 4 -D (Dichlorophen-oxyacetic acid). They can be used in cereals, sugar cane and soya beans farms to reduce weeds.
Some common garden weeds

Common names Botanical names

1 Guinea grass Panicumm maximum

2 Elephant grass Pennisetum purpureun

3 Tridax Tridax prociimbem

4 Carpet grass Axonopus compressus

5 Goose grass or Africana Cynodon dactylon

6 Siam weed Eluesine indica

Weed control methods
7 African or bush marigold Chromoleana odorata

8 Pig weed Aspilia Africana

9 Goat weed or blue top Boerhavia diffusa

10 Water leaf Ageratum conyzoides

11 Soft weed Talinum triagulare

12 Wild green Erogratis tenella 13. Stubborn grass 14. Igbologi 15. "Ichtei" 16. Dolukegu 17. Ebeleogu 18. Okpalieziza-Ike


13 Tropical kudzu Amaranthus spinosus

14 Centro Calapogonium mucunoides

15 Blue flower or water grass Centrosema pubescens

16 Spear grass Commelina spp

17 Striga Imperata cylindrical

18 Wild potato or moring glory Striga senegalensis

19 Broom weed Ipomea spp

20 Emilia Sida acuta

21 Giant star grass Emilia sonchifolia

22 Stubborn grass Cynodon nlemfuensis

23 Sensitive plant Sporobolus pyramidalis

24 Bur weed Mimosa pudica

25 Acanthospermum hisidum


READ THE FULL LISTS OF WEEDS AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES HERE

1. Blue feather--------------------------------Commelina nudiflora


DONT FORGET YOU CAN MAKE COOL MILLION ONLINE HERE IN THIS GUIDE


2. BAHAMA GRASS-----------------Cynodon dactylon


BUR WEED-----------------------------Triumfetta rhumboidea

CALAPO---------------------------------Calapagonium mucunoides

CARPET GRASS----------------------Axonopus compressors

to understand the effect of leaching and liming, read here

READ ABOUT POULTRY FARMING AND BIRDS HERE

science and its usefulness. read here

CELOCIA--------------------------------Celosia rotundus

CENTRO-----------------------------------Centrocema pubescens

DESMODIUM-----------------------------Desmodium Spp


DODDER----------------------------------Cascuta americana


ELEPHANT GRASS----------------------Pennisetum purpurium


EMILLIA-----------------------------------Emillia sognifochia

you can read my post on bush fallowing here

here is my detailed article on the botanical names of crop

you can read more about weed control methods here

FOXTAIL GRASS--------------------------Setaria barbata

GOAT WEED-----------------------------------Ageretum conyzoides

GUINEA GRASS----------------------------Panacum maximum

GIANT STAR GRASS=============Cynodon plectostachyus

GUATEMALA GRASS------------------------Tripsaum laxum

GRAGOSTIC GRASS------------------------Gragrostic aspera

LEMON GRASS---------------------------Cymbopogon citratus

here is a post on propagation of crops here

here is a post on agricultural practice

MILK WEED--------------------------------Euophorbia hirta
MISLETOE--------------------------------------LORANTHUS PENTAGONA
MONEY WEED--------------------------------accanthospernum hispidum
NORTHERN GAMBA GRASS-------------------Andropogon gayanus
GLORIOSA PLANT-------------------------Gloriosa superba
PARA GRASS--------------------------------Pernicum barbinode
PANGOLA GRASS---------------------------Digitaria decumbens

PIG WEED-----------------------------------Boerhavia diffusa

SOME OF THESE WEED ARE VERY USEFUL TO MAN. YOU CAN READ MORE HERE


read how weeds can be used as mulching materials

PUERO----------------------------------------Pueraria phaseoloides

RUBBER WEED-----------------------------Mimosa pudica

RHODES GRASS-----------------------------Chloris guyana

SOUTHERN GAMBA GRASS---------------Andropogon tectorum

SUNHEMP-------------------------------------Crotelaria juncea

SPEAR GRASS--------------------------------Imperata cylindrica

STYLO-------------------------------------------Stylosanthes gracilis

SENSITIVE PLANT--------------------------Mimosa pudica






SEDGE PLANT-----------------------------Cyperus rotundatus

SIAM WEED------------------------------Chromolina oohum

STUBBORN GRASS----------------------Sida acuta

GREEN-TETE-WITH THORNS------------------------Amaranthus spinosis

ou can read about the use of herbicide and its application here

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