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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURE AND THEIR SOLUTION


PROBLEMS FACING AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

The development of Agriculture in Nigeria and other west African countries is hindered by the following factors;
1.

INADEQUATE LAND;

the system of land ownership called land tenure system does not make available enough land for production.
In Nigeria and most other West African countries, land is communally owned and no person has sole right over the land. A person could be entitled to land ownership only by inheritance.
Thus people with no inherited land but have huge capital for investment in large-scale Agriculture; usually find it difficult to obtain enough land for such investment.

SOLUTIONS


(a) Government should review and modify the existing land tenure system to reflect the aspirations of the nation towards achieving self sufficiency in Agriculture production.

(b) It essential to make laws that will enable individuals who wish to go into farming to buy and own land.

(c) In some areas, the Government should give full support to the establishment of plantations and farm settlements schemes.

(d) Government should help local communities in the development of their land through the establishment of plantations.

(e) Government should encourage families or communities to come together as a group and merge their small portions of land into economically large and viable units which will be suitable for mechanization.










2.

EFFECTS OF BASIC AMENITIES


Lack of basic social amenities such as pipe borne water, good roads and electricity in the local areas are problems that can hinder Agricultural development. In addition, health facilities are often absent or inadequate and where available is very costly.



SOLUTIONS



(a) Provide basic amenities to farmers so as to stimulate increased productivity.

(b) Give basic health education to the farmers based on hygiene and personal cleanliness. This will involve the provision of good sanitary latrines, obtaining water from a clean source, eating well balanced diet, and living in healthy clean surroundings free from germs and disease pathogens.


3.

LACK OF FINANCE


In Nigeria and other West African countries, the income of farmers is usually very low due to factors such as crop failure, poor harvest, diseases and pest.

Farmers are generally poor and do not have enough money to buy modern input and implements such as; improved seeds, livestock, farm machinery, fertilizer, pesticide and herbicides.






Agricultural credits are hard to come by commercial banks and other financial institutions often fail to provide credits to farmers due to the uncertainties involved in Agricultural production.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT










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