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MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE


Meaning of Mechanization


Mechanization is concerned with the use of machines in farm work.
The introduction of machines into farming has enabled, for instance, land clearing to be carried out more easily with the bulldozer.

Digging of the land before seeds are planted can now be done with either the disc or mouldboard plough. Different machines called planters are now available to plant different crops.In Nigeria, farm work is carried out using simple farm implements.

For example,
clearing of land is done with the cutlass, digging of the land with hoe and, planting with cutlass and trowel


The introduction of machines into farming has enabled, for instance, land clearing to be carried out more easily with the bulldozer.

Digging of the land before seeds are planted can now be done with either the disc or mouldboard plough. Different machines called planters are now available to plant different crops.

In addition, different crop harvesters are now in existence for the harvesting of mature



Advantages of farm mechanization


(a) It removes the difficulty in farming. Farm work is considered by people to be very hard. The use of machines therefore makes farming enjoyable.

(b) Large areas of farm Ind can be prepared within very short time. This means that mechanisation saves time.

(c) It allows the farmer to perform some difficult jobs easily; for example, the felling of trees is easily done with the motor-saw instead of the axe and cutlass.

(d) Mechanization saves labour. Very few laborers are required when machines are employed on the farm.

(e) It increases farm productivity because of large cope operation. Increased productivity leads to higher farm income and standard of living.

(f) The cost of using machines on the farm is cheaper in the long run compared with the cost of farm-labour that is always rising.

(g) It prevents bad agricultural practices such as complete burning all vegetation on new farmland.

In addition, large are of farm land can still be cultivated by the farmer during one cropping season

(h) It enables the farmers to use surplus farm products profitably, For example, the crop dryer allows quick and easy drying of crop product such as rice, maize, sorghum and wheat. Crop product can be processed into different products, more acceptable to consumers. In addition, surplus perishable products such as tomatoes, vegetables, milk and meat can be stored for a long time using the refrigerator arrd cold storage.

(i) The use of machines in farming may attract young and educated persons to take up farming as- an- occupation.




(j) The mechanisation of farming may release some workers formerly engaged in farming to take up jobs in Agro-allied industries in urban centres.


Disadvantages of mechanisation



(a) Many of the farm- workers will be jobless. With the use of cs in fanping, the work that can be done by many workers be carried out by very few. farm hands. The others need to be retained before they can fit into new jobs.

(b) The use of heavy machine. such as the bulldozers and- tractors islmvs ihc.soii structure. This ma'y result in soil erosion caused by water.

(c) The environment is polluted becairse of the use of machines. The exhaust from motor-vehicles and scraps from machines and Blirinenls result in environmental pollution.

(d) The use of heavy machines leads to soil compaction. The continuos use of tillage implements results in the development iiilpan or hard soil layer below the soil surface. This reduces water inhlliation in the soil as well as crops roots penetration.

(e) Mechanization has directed production to those crops that are mechanized such as rice, maize, and few others. The production of crops such as cocoyam and yam that are not easils produced with the aid of machines is therefore declining yearly.

(f) Machinery requires large capital investment. Only farmers that have enough money will be able to acquire machines.

(g) The use of machines in farming requires adequate and continuos supply of energy from fuel and electricity.



Problems will arise if the supply is not enough, or is lacking.

Problems of farm mechanization in Nigeria


(a) Farm holdings are very small: farm mechanization is only suitable with large farm holdings.

(b) Most of the farmers poor. Tractors and other farm machines are costly and many farmers cannot buy them.



(c) Nigerian soils contain large tree stumps, roots and stones. These breakdown farm machines and render them useless. Also the presence of small hills, pits and moats makes the land rugged and unsuitable for machines.

(d) There is lack of adequate facilities for the maintenance of farm machines. The result is that machines can be rendered useless because of minor faults.

(e) The people that have skills to operate the tractor and other farm machines. Many farmers do not have the money to employ those that are trained in the use of farm machines.

(f) There are no good access roads in farming communities. Tractors and other machines spend long hours on the road between farm sites and sheds. They sometimes get stuck in the mud.

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You can read some of most interesting topics below
Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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