ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATIONFarm mechanization is the use of Farm mechanization is the use of large farm implement.
Mechanization at the system level is one of the most important aspects required to reform Indian agriculture. India has made significant progress in field preparation by using tractors with matching implements for plowing and puddling
ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTUREFarm mechanization has the following advantages
TIMELINESS OF OPERATION
farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given period of time
MECHANIZATION SAVES TIME
in farm mechanization, all most human efforts are substituted with machines. Hence labour saved could be employed somewhere else
MECHANIZATION REDUCES HEALTH HAZARDS
farm mechanization reduces health hazards including those posed by the use of cutlass, hoe, digger, knives, stumps and pests
MECHANIZATION REDUCES DRUDGERY
farm mechanization makes it easy to avoid unpleasant manual jobs
MECHANIZATION INCREASES FARM YIELD
as a result of mechanization, farmers become richer due to increased yield
IT ENCOURAGES LARGE SCALE FARMING
with the use of machine which reduces labour and thereby making the work faster and easier, farmers tends to go into large scale farming activities
INCREASE IN OUTPUT
mechanization makes it possible for farmers to have increase in output
IT MAKES SPECIALIZATION OF LABOUR POSSIBLE
farm mechanization enables people to become specialized in certain operations within the farm.
CO-OPERATION AMONG FARMERS
mechanization enables many farmers to come together and pool their resources together, thereby promoting or encouraging co-operation among farmers.
IT SAVES TIME:
mechanization translates quickly the products of man’s brain into reality.
REDUCTION IN COST OF OPERATION we cannot actually finished the topic of Farm mechanization mentioning that farm mechanization helps in creating job opportunities:
mechanization leads to reduction in the cost of agricultural operations per unit output.
IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY OF PRODUCE:
mechanization usually improves the quality of some farm produce, e.g., rice processing.
AVAILABILITY OF LABOUR FOR OTHER SECTORS:
mechanization also helps to release labour to other sectors of the economy.
USE OF LESS HUMAN LABOUR:
mechanization helps to accomplish lots of work with less human labour.
Advantages of farm mechanization
(a) It removes the difficulty in farming. Farm work is considered by people to be very hard. The use of machines therefore makes farming enjoyable.
1. Mechanization also results in better utilization of agricultural land
2. The use of machine energy, therefore, leads to good agricultural production.
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Mechanization raises the efficiency of labor and enhances the farm production per worker. By its nature it reduces the quantum of labor needed to produce a unit of output. In the U.S.A., “the amount of human input and labor used to produce at most 100 bushels of wheat dropped from 320 hours in the year 1830
(b) Large areas of farm Ind can be prepared within very short time. This means that mechanization saves time.
(c) It allows the farmer to perform some difficult jobs easily; for example, the felling of trees is easily done with the motor-saw instead of the axe and cutlass
(e) It increases farm productivity because of large co operation. Increased productivity leads to higher farm income and standard of living.
(f) The cost of using machines on the farm is cheaper in the long run compared with the cost of farm-labour that is always rising. read about farm machines here
(g) It prevents bad agricultural practices such as complete burning all vegetation on new farmland. In addition, large are of farm land can still be cultivated by the farmer during one cropping season
(h) It enables the farmers to use surplus farm products profitably, For example, the crop dryer allows quick and easy drying of crop product such as rice, maize, sorghum and wheat. Crop product can be processed into different products, more acceptable to consumers. In addition, surplus perishable products such as tomatoes
(j) The mechanisation of farming may release some workers formerly engaged in farming to take up jobs in Agro-allied industries in urban centres.
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DISADVANTAGES OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATIONFarm mechanization has the following disadvantages
1.HIGH COST OF RUNNING:
farm mechanization, due to the high cost and numerous machines involved, is very expensive to operate
2.DISPLACEMENT OF WORKERS :
in farm mechanization, very few workers are required. Hence many people will be out of job when mechanization is introduced
3. COMPACTION OF SOIL:
mechanization lead to compaction of soil due to the movement of heavy machines
mechanization CAUSES ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION:
mechanization causes environmental pollution due to smokes emanating from engines of these machines, chemicals and the use of fertilizer
MECHANIZATION LEADS TO DEGRADATION OF LANDSCAPE:
mechanization leads to degradation of landscape due to or as a result of continuous excavation
LAND TENURE SYSTEM CAUSES PROBLEM FOR FARM MECHANIZATION:
land tenure system may hinder efficient use machines like tractors, bulldozer due to small holdings of farmland
MECHANIZATION LEADS TO DESTRUCTION OF SOIL STRUCTURES:
the soil structure can easily be destroyed due to continuous use of heavy machines
MECHANIZATION LEADS TO REDUNDANCY OF FARM LABOURwith farm machines working on the farms, the work can easily be completed and this situation can create redundancy in farm labour
FEW CROPS CAN BE MECHANIZED
very few crops like maize, rice, millet and guinea corn that easily be mechanized
INADEQUATE TECHNICAL KNOW-HOW
there is always inadequate technical know-how in handling the farm machines and equipment in most developing countries of the world
MECHANIZATION CAUSES DAMAGE TO CROPSmost crops are easily damaged during mechanize farm operation
INADEQUATE SPARE PARTS IS A MAJOR PROBLEM TO MECHANIZED FARMINGmost of the spare parts or replacement parts for most of these machines are not readily available
HIGH COST OF MAINTENANCE OF MACHINES IS A PROBLEM OF MECHANIZATIONthere is usually high cost of maintenance of machines involved in mechanized agriculture especially for the heavy duty machines
MECHANIZATION CAUSES SPREAD OF PEST AND DISEASESmechanization help to spread diseases through contaminated machineries
mechanization needs human labour to control it
UNSTABLE FUEL SUPPLY
unstable supply of fuel in the international market can easily affect the use of these machines in mechanized agriculture
Disadvantages of mechanization(a) Many of the farm- workers will be jobless. With the use of machines in farming, the work that can be done by many workers be carried out by very few. farm hands. The others need to be retained before they can fit into new jobs.
(b) The use of heavy machine. such as the bulldozers and- tractors destroys the soil structure. This may result in soil erosion caused by water.
(c) The environment is polluted because of the use of machines. The exhaust from motor-vehicles and scraps from machines and Blurriness result in environmental pollution.
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d) The use of heavy machines leads to soil compaction. The continuous use of tillage implements results in the development of hard soil layer below the soil surface. This reduces water inhlliation in the soil as well as crops roots penetration.
(e) Mechanization has directed production to those crops that are mechanized such as rice, maize, and few others
The production of crops such as coco-yam and yam that are not easily produced with the aid of machines is therefore declining yearly.
(f) Machinery requires large capital investment. Only farmers that have enough money will be able to acquire machines.
(g) The use of machines in farming requires adequate and continuous supply of energy from fuel and electricity. Problems will arise if the supply is not enough, or is lacking.
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