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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION


ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given period of time

ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE

Farm mechanization has the following advantages
1.
TIMELINESS OF OPERATION
farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given period of time
2.
MECHANIZATION SAVES TIME
in farm mechanization, all most human efforts are substituted with machines. Hence labour saved could be employed somewhere else
3.
MECHANIZATION REDUCES HEALTH HAZARDS
farm mechanization reduces health hazards including those posed by the use of cutlass, hoe, digger, knives, stumps and pests

4.
MECHANIZATION REDUCES DRUDGERY
farm mechanization makes it easy to avoid unpleasant manual jobs
5.
MECHANIZATION INCREASES FARM YIELD
as a result of mechanization, farmers become richer due to increased yield
6.
IT ENCOURAGES LARGE SCALE FARMING
with the use of machine which reduces labour and thereby making the work faster and easier, farmers tends to go into large scale farming activities
7.
INCREASE IN OUTPUT
mechanization makes it possible for farmers to have increase in output






8.
IT MAKES SPECIALIZATION OF LABOUR POSSIBLE
farm mechanization enables people to become specialized in certain operations within the farm.
9.
CO-OPERATION AMONG FARMERS
mechanization enables many farmers to come together and pool their resources together, thereby promoting or encouraging co-operation among farmers.
10.
IT SAVES TIME:
mechanization translates quickly the products of man’s brain into reality.
11.
REDUCTION IN COST OF OPERATION :
mechanization leads to reduction in the cost of agricultural operations per unit output.
12.
IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY OF PRODUCE:
mechanization usually improves the quality of some farm produce, e.g., rice processing.
13.
AVAILABILITY OF LABOUR FOR OTHER SECTORS:
mechanization also helps to release labour to other sectors of the economy.
14.
USE OF LESS HUMAN LABOUR:
mechanization helps to accomplish lots of work with less human labour.

Advantages of farm mechanization


(a) It removes the difficulty in farming. Farm work is considered by people to be very hard. The use of machines therefore makes farming enjoyable.
1. Mechanization also results in better utilization of agricultural land
2. The use of machine energy, therefore, leads to good agricultural production.
(Citation needed)


READ ABOUT RESPONSE TO STIMULI HERE

read more about mechanization in agriculture

READ ABOUT MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS HERE

Mechanization raises the efficiency of labor and enhances the farm production per worker. By its nature it reduces the quantum of labor needed to produce a unit of output. In the U.S.A., “the amount of human input and labor used to produce at most 100 bushels of wheat dropped from 320 hours in the year 1830 to 108 hours in 1900 (citation needed)

(b) Large areas of farm Ind can be prepared within very short time. This means that mechanization saves time.
(c) It allows the farmer to perform some difficult jobs easily; for example, the felling of trees is easily done with the motor-saw instead of the axe and cutlass
(d) Mechanization saves labour. Very few labourers are required when machines are employed on the farm.
(e) It increases farm productivity because of large co operation. Increased productivity leads to higher farm income and standard of living.
(f) The cost of using machines on the farm is cheaper in the long run compared with the cost of farm-labour that is always rising. read about farm machines here






(g) It prevents bad agricultural practices such as complete burning all vegetation on new farmland. In addition, large are of farm land can still be cultivated by the farmer during one cropping season
(h) It enables the farmers to use surplus farm products profitably, For example, the crop dryer allows quick and easy drying of crop product such as rice, maize, sorghum and wheat. Crop product can be processed into different products, more acceptable to consumers. In addition, surplus perishable products such as tomatoes
, vegetables, milk and meat can be stored for a long time using the refrigerator and cold storage.
(i) The use of machines in farming may attract young and educated persons to take up farming as- an- occupation.
(j) The mechanisation of farming may release some workers formerly engaged in farming to take up jobs in Agro-allied industries in urban centres.

you can also read about farm machinery here

DISADVANTAGES OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION

Farm mechanization has the following disadvantages


1.HIGH COST OF RUNNING:
farm mechanization, due to the high cost and numerous machines involved, is very expensive to operate

2.DISPLACEMENT OF WORKERS :
in farm mechanization, very few workers are required. Hence many people will be out of job when mechanization is introduced

3. COMPACTION OF SOIL:
mechanization lead to compaction of soil due to the movement of heavy machines

4.
IT CAUSES ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION:
mechanization causes environmental pollution due to smokes emanating from engines of these machines, chemicals and the use of fertilizer

5.DEGRADATION OF LANDSCAPE:
mechanization leads to degradation of landscape due to or as a result of continuous excavation

6.
LAND TENURE SYSTEM:
land tenure system may hinder efficient use machines like tractors, bulldozer due to small holdings of farmland

7.
DESTRUCTION OF SOIL STRUCTURES:
the soil structure can easily be destroyed due to continuous use of heavy machines

8. REDUNDANCY OF FARM LABOUR
with farm machines working on the farms, the work can easily be completed and this situation can create redundancy in farm labour

9.
FEW CROPS CAN BE MECHANIZED
very few crops like maize, rice, millet and guinea corn that easily be mechanized






10.
INADEQUATE TECHNICAL KNOW-HOW
there is always inadequate technical know-how in handling the farm machines and equipment in most developing countries of the world

11.
DAMAGE TO CROPS
most crops are easily damaged during mechanize farm operation

12.
INADEQUATE SPARE PARTS
most of the spare parts or replacement parts for most of these machines are not readily available

13.
HIGH COST OF MAINTENANCE
there is usually high cost of maintenance of machines involved in mechanized agriculture especially for the heavy duty machines

14.
SPREAD OF PEST AND DISEASES
mechanization help to spread diseases through contaminated machineries

15.
HUMAN CONTROL
mechanization needs human labour to control it

16.
UNSTABLE FUEL SUPPLY
unstable supply of fuel in the international market can easily affect the use of these machines in mechanized agriculture

Disadvantages of mechanization

(a) Many of the farm- workers will be jobless. With the use of machines in farming, the work that can be done by many workers be carried out by very few. farm hands. The others need to be retained before they can fit into new jobs.

(b) The use of heavy machine. such as the bulldozers and- tractors destroys the soil structure. This may result in soil erosion caused by water.

(c) The environment is polluted because of the use of machines. The exhaust from motor-vehicles and scraps from machines and Blurriness result in environmental pollution.

READ ABOUT LEVELS OF LIFE IN LIVING ORGANISMS

d) The use of heavy machines leads to soil compaction. The continuous use of tillage implements results in the development of hard soil layer below the soil surface. This reduces water inhlliation in the soil as well as crops roots penetration.

(e) Mechanization has directed production to those crops that are mechanized such as rice, maize, and few others

The production of crops such as coco-yam and yam that are not easily produced with the aid of machines is therefore declining yearly.

(f) Machinery requires large capital investment. Only farmers that have enough money will be able to acquire machines.

(g) The use of machines in farming requires adequate and continuous supply of energy from fuel and electricity. Problems will arise if the supply is not enough, or is lacking.



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1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING

61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88.






104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES








154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)

158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE