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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

PROPER WAYS TO USE FERTILIZERS AND MANURES


APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURES OR FERTILIZERS

Inorganic manures or fertilizers are chermical substances in of powder, granules or crystals which are added to the soil to provide nutrients that are deficient. Fertilizers are manufactured in the industry from rocks and other materials.

Types of fertilizers

There are two types of fertilizers:

(i) Straight or single or simple fertilizers: These are fertili/ers that contain one of the major plant nutrients in the form plants can use. They contain one primary element such as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus in their composition. These are called the key nutrients. Examples are sulphate of ammonia, urea, ammonia nitrate, sodium nitrate with nitrogen as the key nutrient. Also, singlfl super phosphate, concentrated super phosphate and calcium metaphosphate all contain phosphorus as their key element. Others are muriate of potash (potassium (1) chloride), crude potash and suiphate-of-potash-alliiavmg -potassium-asthe-ir-primary element.
(ii) Mixed or complex or compound fertilizers: These are fertilizers that contain two or more primary nutrient elements pilli filler materials. The nutrients are in ratios and the ratio refers to the proportion of the major nutrients to one another. Examples are N.P.K: 15:15:15, 20:20:20, N.P.K: Mg. 12: 12:17:2 and others







Handling of fertilizers: As a result of the inherent hazards of fertilizers such as stinging sensations, blisters, itching irritations and other skin diseases, care should be taken to avoid bodily contacts. Ilierclbre, the user should always put on gloves and protective clothings when handling fertilizers.

Storage of fertilizers: Fertilizers are stored in bags of synthetic fabrics which prevent entry of water and moist air that could lead to dissolution.

Tarpaulins should be used to give additional protection to the fertilizers stored at ports warehouses, field depots of the Ministry of Agriculture and other agencies.

Farmers should construct a simple fertilizer store among their stead. They should be stored differently according to types for easy identification and access. Platforms of wood should be made on which the bags are stacked, up to a considerable height, to avoid slippage and allow for easy stock taking. It should not rest on the wail. Air circulation should be encouraged in the store.

Advantages of fertilizers:
1. They bring about increase in crop yield.
2. They increase farm income.
3. They increase the productivity of poor soils.
4. They are easily transported to where they are needed compared to organic manures.
5. They are used on large scale.
6. The nutrients in fertilizers are readily available to crops.

Disadvantages
1. Fertilizers are easily leached in the soil.
2. Some fertilizers leave acidic residues in the soil.
3. Inorganic manures do not improve soil structure.
4. Some of the nutrients aie easily lost as gases under intense heat of the sun. Example is ammonia. 5. Fertilizers are expensive to procure.
6. They are sometimes not available at the time of need.

Methods of applying fertilizers
1. Broadcasting: This is where fertilizer is evenly spread on the farmland. It could be done before ploughing or tillage to incorporate it into the soil.
2. Side dressing or application: This is where small quantity of fertilizer is placed on one or two sides of individual crop.





3. Ring application: A shallow trench is dug round individual crop a few centimetres away from the stem. Fertilizer is then sprinkled in the trench and covered with soil.
4. Row application: This is where fertilizer is applied in row few centimetres from the crops. It is suitable when crops are planted in rows
5. Top dressing: This is where fertilizer is applied to the surface soil within the reach of the roots of crops during the growing stage.
6. Foliage application: This is where soluble fertilizers are applied as sprays on the leaves of crops.

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You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION





87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. What is soil fertility? How is it different from a fertile soil?
2. (a) List five ways through which the fertility of the soil can be maintained.
(b) Mention two advantages and t\vo disadvantages of using each way mentioned.
3. Name three types of organic manures.
4. How would you prepare suitable organic manure for use in your school farm':'
5. List three advantages and two disadvantages of each type of organic manure.
6. List two types of inorganic fertilizer you have studied. Mention three advantages and disadvantages of their uses in crop production
7. Enumerate five methods of fertilizers application.
8. Write short notes on the following:
(b) Mixed or compound fertilizers
(c) Straight or simple fertilizers
(d) Green manure
(e) Cover cropping

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