TYPES OF BACTERIA, FUNGI, VIRUS AND NEMATODE AND EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS


1. Bacteria
These are very small unicellular organisms. They are said to be ubiquitous because they can be found everywhere even in the remotest places where other plants and animals cannot live. They are found in soils, dirty water, air. plant and animal bodies, can only be seen under the microscope.




The attack of bacteria on plants is manifested as rottening of plant parts accompanied with very bad smell. Though most bacteria are destructive as they cause disease*, some of them are useful man since they help in the following ways:
(a) Decomposition of compost
(b) Production of drinks, e.g. beer
(c) Making of butter and cheese
(d) Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in root nodules of leguminous plants, thereby helping in increasing soil fertility.

There are three types of bacteria based on their shapes. They are (spherical), bacilli (rod shaped) and spirilla (Spiral shaped).

2. Fungi
These are plant species but they do not possess chlorophyll stems roots and leaves. The body is made up of myceliium which of tiny delicate branches called hyphae. The fruiting bodies originate from some of these hyphae. The sporangia many tiny spores through which the fungus is dispersed-. fungi have no chlorophyll, they cannot manufacture their own they depend on their host for their food, thereby causing use hi the host plant.





3. Viruses
These are minute organisms that can only be seen under the tron microscope. Plants suffering from this disease show:
(a) Coloured spots and bands on the leavesu
(b) Twisted and wrinkled leaves
(c) Stunted growth of the entire plant.

Sucking insects e.g. mealy bugs, aphids and white flies can limit virus disease from one infected plant to a healthy one.
Almost all virus diseases have no effective cure. It is advisable to prevent and control the disease as the case may be.

4. Nematodes
These are soil-borne organisms which usually attack the roots of plants. They are capable of causing considerable damage to the plant. Affected plants show decline in productivity and the roots become distorted with enlarged growths.
Soil sterilization may help to control the spread of nematodes.

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Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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