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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE Farm mechanization has the following advantages 1. ...

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CATTLE REARING AND ITS IMPORTANCE




(a) Importance of Cattle
1. Beef, which is a rich source of protein, is obtained from cattle,
2. Milk is also a major product from dairy cows.
3. Hides are used for various industrial purposes, particularly leather works
4. It horns and hooves are used for making various household wares, e.g. knives, ash trays, etc.
5. Cattle production provides employment to many people directly or indirectly.
6. Povides income to the farmer.
7. The dungs serve as a good source of farm yard manure to crop growers.
8. The bones supply minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, sodium when included in animals feeds.

(b) Some Terms Associated with Cattle Production


1. Bull: an adult male cattle
2. Cow: adult female cattle.
3. Bullock or steet or Slag: a castrated male cattle.
4. Heifer: a young female cattle which has not had a calf, usually under I2 months old.
5. Yearling: a young cattle usually between 12 to 24 months.
6. Veal: the beef of young cattle.
7. Vealers: calves reared for veal production. They are usually slaughtered when 3 months old.
8. Colostrum: a kind of milk produced by a cow three to four days alter delivery.
9. Calving: the act of deliver in cows.
10. Servicing: mating of a cow by a bull.
11. Castration: removal of the male testes.
12. Heat period: the period when the cow is ready to receive the bull for servicing. It occurs mid-way within the oestrus cycle.
13. Oestrus cycle: the time interval between one heat period and another.
14. Gestation Period: This is the period of pregnancy. In cows it last lor 281-283 days i.e. about 9 months.
15. Udder: The breast of cows.

(c) Types of Cattle
There are different types of cattle depending on the purpose for which they are kept. These include:

1. Beef type cattle: Those kept for beef or meat production purposes, e.g. Ndama. Muturu. Keteku. etc.

2. Dairy cattle: Those kept for milk production purposes, e.g. white fulani. Buraji. etc.

3. Workcatde: These are cattle kept for work purposes. They arc used to do odd jobs in farms like
pulling of ploughs, e.g. Sokoto gudali. Kanrej. etc.

4. Dual purpose cattle: These are kept for more than one purpose. They could he kept for milk production and at the same time for beef production, e.g. Sokoto gudali.

(d) Breeds of cattle
The following are common breeds of cattle in Nigeria

(i) Humpless Cattle: Krui, Ndama, Muturu
(ii) Humped or Xebu Cattle: Red bororo. Sokoto gudali, Shuwa Cattle, white Fulani

(b) Foreign or exotic breeds: These can be grouped into two:
(i) Dairy breeds: e.g. Holstein Friesian. Brown Swiss. Red Den and New Jersey.
(ii) Beef breeds: e.g. Hereford. Aberdeen angus. Red devon. Etc.

(c) Management Systems in Cattle




Cattle can be managed under any of the following systems:

(i) Extensive System: This is the traditional method of cattle production. It is commonly practised in tropical countries of the this system, cattle are moved from one grazing land to the other depending on the availability of grass.

Most cattle in Nigeria are reared under this system. When become scarce in the dry season, the animals are moved Is where there is denser vegetation. The animals are In graze under the control of a herdsman.

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You can read some of most interesting topics below
Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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