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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

SOIL FERTILITY IMPROVEMENT SYSTEMS







SOIL FERTILITY AND management

1. explain the that means of soil fertility a nd a fertile soil2. outline the numerous strategies of soil fertility control.
three. kingdom the blessings and disadvantages of each technique.

https://www.fabioclass.com/2019/05/functions-of-plant-nutrients-and-their.html

Soil fertility is the ability of the soil to deliver mineral nutrient
factors to crop.

The nutrients must be in adequate quantities and in
appropriate proportions to decorate crop manufacturing. A fertile soil
ie that which includes ok nutrient factors required through crops.

2.1 traits of a Fertile Soil
1. excessive cation alternate ability (C.E.C.)
2. precise water holding potential
three. ok humus contents

read my post on types of soil and their properties

4. excellent granular (Spheroidal)
five. without difficulty tilled (true work-ability)
6. important factors to be had in required forms and amount.

occasionally, a soil won't be capable of produce precise crops although
it is fertile. this is because of the incapability of the soil to make
nutrients available to the crops in the right quantity. this could occur
due to numerous elements which includes:
(a) too much acids or bases inside the soil.
(b) bad soil structure.
(c) the share of the different soil debris gift inside the soil
(Texture).
(d) Climatic factors inclusive of amount of rainfall and temperature.
(e) the character of the clay lattice.
(f) Cation change capability of the soil.








strategies of Soil Fertility management
There are several methods that may be used to hold the fertility of the
soil. They encompass bush fallowing, cover cropping, rotation cropping,
utility of natural and inorganic fertilizers.

1. Bush fallowing in detail here
that is the exercise of leaving a farm-land uncultivated for a time
period. this is to allow the soil to regain its misplaced nutrients in
natural form. for instance, leaves from the shrubs and herbs drop and
dcray consequently adding manure to the soil.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON


89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION

147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

benefits
1. it may correctly preserve soil fertility in regions with low
pressure on land.
2. It protects the soil in opposition to erosion.
three. Fallen leaves decompose to increase organic matter content
material of the soil.
4. Evaporation of soil water and leaching of minerals are reduced.
5. there may be additionally a increase of residing organisms within
the soil which arc beneficial for soil change and
granulation.
risks
1. it's far a completely gradual procedure of maintaining soil
fertility.
2. It does no longer match the growing call for for land due to populace
growth.
3. The period allowed for fallow isn't always enough for good enough
replacement of misplaced vitamins.

2. cover Cropping
that is the developing of crops purposely to provide cover for the.
soil. crops together with melon, cow-pea (trailing type), groundnut,
sweet potato, and others can be grown along aspect the primary
vegetation to provide cover for the soil. Others like pueraria.
mucuna and centrosema can be used in plantations or on fallow lands.
https://www.fabioclass.com/2019/05/functions-of-plant-nutrients-and-their.html
advantages
1. They protect the soil in opposition to erosion.
2. Evaporation of soil water is decreased.
three. They prevent the leaching of beneficial mineral elements within
the soil.
four. They suppress weeds at the farmland
five. Their fallen leaves decompose to feature organic count number to
the soil.
6. where legumes are used, they assist to boom the nitrogen content of
the soil because of the motion of root nodule micro organism
7. They may be worked into the soil as inexperienced
eight. They help to maintain pretty solid soil temperature "'

hazards
1. cowl plants compete with the main vegetation for nutrient factors
and available water.
2. They growth the charge of loss of water in the soil via
transpiration.

3. Rotation Cropping
this is the growing of crops on a chunk of land year after year in a
particular order.

benefits
1. using a terrific rotational system of cropping permits soil for
use constantly with out rapid lack of important nutrients.
2. it's miles an excellent system for use where land is scarce.
three. it's far a labour saving machine as the same land is prepared
for planting every yr.
four. Weeds are successfully checked.
five. Erosion is reduced due to the fact the land isn't uncovered.
6. It reduces the building up, of host unique illnesses and pests.

hazards
The essential disadvanitage of this method is that continuous tillage of
the floor soil renders it unfastened and without difficulty eroded.'

4. organic MANURING
Manures are flora and animal materials which can be added to the soil to
deliver nutrieiits wanted for the growth of vegetation. A well
decomposed organic rely is referred to as humus. Humus is a wealthy
supply of plant vitamins appropriate for vegetable gardening.

sorts of-Organic Manures
The most important types of organic manures are green manure, form
backyard manure and compost manure








(i) green manures: those are undecomposed inexperienced plant life
parts which are turned into the soil. a few flowers are grown specially
to be worked or dug intp the floor to serve as source of plant
vitamins. Examples arc mucuna, centrosema. pueraria. calopogonium and
sparkling green weeds. that is carried out generally while they're young
and succulent tor easy decomposition. It also includes the growing of
leguminous flowers for the motive of soil development. this is the
motive for growth in yield of other vegetation planted after a legume,
together with groundnut, pigeon peas, and cowpea which upload nitrogen
in the soil has been harvested.

blessings
(a) It gives natural matter to the soil to enhance its bodily
situation.
(b) It substances nitrogen and other plant vitamins.
(c) It protects the soil towards erosion.
(d) It reduces the lack of nutrients through leaching.

dangers
(a) there is competition for fundamental nutrients and water.
(b) they will harbor diseases and pests of crop plant.
(c) it could be luxurious to grow green manure plants.

it's far advised that vegetation for use as green manure ought to
(a) easily set up.
(b) develop fast.
(c) Produce plentiful succulent shoots and roots in a brief time.
(d) effortlessly cowl the ground.
(e) develop on negative soils.

(ii) Farm backyard manure: that is a mixture of animal droppings,
urine, meals stays and bedding or clutter. Manure from chicken, goats
and sheep are the richest varieties of farm yard manure. they're
accompanied via those of pigs, horse and farm animals.

The materials are heaped underneath a shed to decompose for someday
before use. They might be used direct on the farm. They ought to be
nicely dealt with, as an excessive amount of publicity can also lead to
breakdown of the vitamins.



The greater volatile parts which includes
nitrogen might be lost as ammonia gasoline. it is frequently higher to
combine manures from exclusive styles of animals to be used as pen
manure than to apply handiest one type.
The high-quality of farm backyard manure relies upon on:
(i) The species of animals generating the substances
(ii) Age and situation of the animal.
(iii) The sort of feed given to the animal.
(iv) Nature and amount of clutter. this is, whether absorbent materials
are used as bedding
(v) The handling and techniques of garage earlier than use at the farm.

Farm backyard manure may be carried out by using broadcasting earlier
than tillage in particular whilst the soil is wet or wet. it may be
spread on the bed and blended with the soil before planting.


blessings
1. It carries ail the required plant nutrients.
2. It is reasonably reasonably-priced as it is able to be received from
the farm.


3. It has a lasting effect on the soil.
4. It binds unfastened sandy soil together.
5. It additionally loosens compact clay soils.
6. It permits the soil to absorb and preserve moisture effortlessly.


risks
1. it's far very cumbersome.
2. It calls for a lot labour throughout utility.
3. It has the tendency to inspire rapid increase of weeds.

(iii) Compost manure: that is the decayed plant and animal stays in
thousands or stacks or pits, used as
manure at the farm.

The substances wanted for compost making consist of grass cuttings,
hedge trimmings, weeds, vegetable wastes, leaves and other organic
wastes from the kitchen. Ash or lime or animal dungs or vintage compost,
chemical activators consisting of sulphate of ammonia are also
delivered. young and succulent plant components must be used in place of
woody and tough components. that is due to the fact decomposition is
easier and incorporates much nutrients for healthful plant increase.

A suitable area of the farm, preferably near the threshold, have to be
chosen. The region need to no longer be water-logged. whilst prepared
for the duration of the dry season, there have to be a nearby water
source.

strategies of compost making: strategies can be used in compost making.
these are the pit method and the stack or heap approach. The pit
technique is utilized in areas of low rainfall or inside the dry season
at the same time as the stack or heap method is utilized in high
rainfall areas or in the course of the wet season. Whichever approach is
used , the tactics as well as the materials used remain the same.


procedures of compost making

1. Dig lour pits or peg out four areas.

 2. add kitchen wastes, yam peelings, orange pores and skin and pulp,
rotten end result and something that rots without problems.

3. Then, upload grass cutnnus. hedge trimmings, vegetable wastes and
illled or the preferred top is compress.

4. Repeat this method until the pit is crammed or the favored top
reached if heap method is used.

 5. cover the pinnacle with soil to prevent the entering of flies.

 6. Insert a stick at one cease or at the centre in case of pit approach.
that is referred to as a "tester". It detects if decomposition is going
on or now not. The stick can be warm if there is decomposition after
about five days in any other case, it will likely be bloodless.

7. flip materials or the content material of pit A or heap A into B
after weeks. top off pit or heap A. Repeat this step till pit or heap D
is reached and the desired amount acquired.
8. cowl the final products with appropriate materials until it is ready
for use. this will save you the loss of important nutrients due to
robust sun or rain water.

‘Starters' are substances used to provoke decomposition process of
compost substances. Examples are animal wastes, old compost or materials
that rot without problems.

chemical substances consisting of sulphate of ammonia could be used to
induce decaying technique inside the absence of starters. Such chemical
substances are called 'activators

blessings of compost manure
1. It gives assets of food to living organisms within the soil. ics
are earthworms, termites and microbes.

2. It provides vitamins to the soil for expanded ciop yield,
3. It improves the physical circumstance of Iru' '.oil eistructure
and texture.
four. It allows to preserve identical amounts of acid and ha-. the
soil.
5. It helps to preserve soil moisture and stops erosion
6. It has a modifying impact on soil temperature;

hazards
1. It entails a whole lot labour in practise.
2. it's time regarding and not economic for use in massive farms.
three. it could purpose sizzling if applied while not completely matured

4. it may introduce ailment inflicting sellers. this may manifest if
now not might also well handled or allowed to mature befonb use.

application OF INORGANIC MANURES OR

FERTILIZERS

 Inorganic manures or fertilizers are chemical substances in of powder,
granules or crystals which might be brought to the soil to provide
nutrients that are poor. Fertilizers are manufactured inside the
enterprise from rocks and different substances.

forms of fertilizers
There are sorts of fertilizers:

(i) straight or unmarried or easy fertilizers: those are fertilizers
that include one of the major plant vitamins in the form vegetation can
use. They comprise one primary element consisting of nitrogen, potassium
and phosphorus in their composition. these are known as the important
thing vitamins.

Examples are sulphate of ammonia, urea, ammonia nitrate,
sodium nitrate with nitrogen as the key nutrient. also, single superb
phosphate, focused terrific phosphate and calcium meta-phosphate all
incorporate phosphorus as their key element. Others are nutriate of
potash (potassium (1) chloride), crude potash and
sulphate-of-potash-alliavmg -potassium-asthe-ir-primary element.
(ii) blended or complex or compound fertilizers: these are
fertilizers that comprise or extra number one nutrient elements pill
filler substances.



The vitamins are in ratios and the ratio refers to
the proportion of the major vitamins to each other. Examples are N.P.k:
15:15:15, 20:20:20, N.P.okay: Mg. 12: 12:17:2 and others

handling of fertilizers: as a result of the inherent hazards of
fertilizers including stinging sensations, blisters, itching irritations
and other skin sicknesses, care ought to be taken to avoid bodily
contacts.

 the person need to usually placed on gloves and
protective clothing while managing fertilizers.

storage of fertilizers:

 Fertilizers are saved in bags of synthetic
fabric which prevent access of water and moist air that might cause
dissolution.

Tarpaulins must be used to offer additional protection to the
fertilizers saved at ports warehouses, subject depots of the Ministry of
Agriculture and other corporations.

Farmers should assemble a simple fertilizer keep among their stead.

They
should be stored in another way consistent with kinds for clean
identification and get admission to. platforms of wood should be made on
which the baggage are stacked, up to a widespread top, to avoid
slippage and allow for smooth stock taking. It have to not rest on the
wail. Air move ought to be encouraged in the store.

blessings of fertilizers:
1. they bring about growth in crop yield.

 

2. They boom farm profits.

3. They growth the productivity of terrible soils.

 

4. they are easily transported to where they are wanted in comparison
to natural manures.

 

5. they may be used on huge scale.
6. The nutrients in fertilizers are readily to be had to plants.

negative aspects

1. Fertilizers are easily leached within the soil.

 

2. a few fertilizers leave acidic residues inside the soil.

 

3. Inorganic manures do now not improve soil structure.

 

4. a number of the nutrients are effortlessly misplaced as gases under
increase warmness of the solar. instance is ammonia.

 

5. Fertilizers are
highly-priced you obtain.

 

6. they may be occasionally no longer to be had at the time of need.

strategies of applying fertilizers

1. Broadcasting:

 this is in which fertilizer is calmly unfold on the
farmland. It may want to be accomplished before ploughing or
tillage to incorporate it into the soil.

2. side dressing or utility:

this is wherein small amount of
fertilizer is placed on one or two sides of man or woman crop.

3. Ring utility:

A shallow trench is dug round man or woman crop
some centimeters far from the stem. Fertilizer is then sprinkled in
the trench and included with soil.

4. Row application: that is where fertilizer is applied in row few centimeters from the vegetation. it is suitable whilst plants are
planted in rows

5. pinnacle dressing: that is wherein fertilizer is applied to the
surface soil in the reach of the roots of crops at some stage in the
growing stage

6. Foliage crops: that is where soluble fertilizers are applied as
sprays at the leaves of crops.

take a look at

QUESTIONS
1. what is soil fertility? How is it one-of-a-kind from a fertile soil?

 2.

(a) listing 5 approaches through which the fertility of the soil
may be maintained.


(b) point out benefits and the dangers of the use of every manner
referred to.
three. name 3 styles of organic manures.
four.

How would you prepare appropriate natural manure for use on your
school farm':' 5. listing three blessings and two negative aspects of each sort of
organic manure.

6. list kinds of inorganic fertilizer you have studied. point out three
advantages and downsides in their makes use of in crop manufacturing
7. Enumerate 5 strategies of fertilizers utility.
8. Write quick notes on the subsequent:
(b) blended or compound fertilizers
(c) instantly or easy fertilizers
(d) green manure
(e) cowl cropping









9. (a) what is rotation cropping?

3. Rotation Cropping
This is the growing of crops on a piece of land year after year in a definite order.
SOIL FERTILITY AND management

Advantages
1. The use of a good rotational system of cropping enables soil to be used continuously without rapid loss of essential nutrients.
2. It is an ideal system to be used where land is scarce.
3. It is a labour saving system as the same land is prepared for planting every year.
4. Weeds are effectively checked.
5. Erosion is reduced because the land is not exposed.
6. It reduces the build up, of host specific diseases and pests.

Disadvantages
The major disadvantage of this method is that continuous tillage of the surface soil renders it loose and easily eroded.'

4. ORGANIC MANURING
Manures are plants and animal materials that are added to the soil to supply nutrieiits needed for the growth of crops. A well decomposed organic matter is called humus. Humus is a rich source of plant nutrients suitable for vegetable gardening.

Types of Organic Manures
The major types of organic manures are green manure, form yard manure and compost manure

(i) Green manures: These are undecomposed green plants parts which are turned into the soil. Some plants are grown specifically to be worked or dug intp the ground to serve as source of plant nutrients. Examples arc mucuna, centrosema. pueraria. calopogonium and fresh green weeds. This is done mostly when they are young and succulent tor easy decomposition. It also involves the growing of leguminous plants for the purpose of soil improvement. This is the reason for increase in yield of other crops planted after a legume, such as groundnut, pigeon peas, and cowpea which add nitrogen In the soil has been harvested.

Advantages
(a) It provides organic matter to the soil to improve its physical condition.
(b) It supplies nitrogen and other plant nutrients.
(c) It protects the soil against erosion.
(d) It reduces the loss of nutrients through leaching.
SOIL FERTILITY AND management


Disadvantages
(a) There is competition for basic nutrients and water.
(b) They may harbour diseases and pests of crop plant.
(c) It may be expensive to grow green manure plants.

It is advised that plants to be used as green manure should
(a) Easily establish.
(b) Grow quickly.
(c) Produce abundant succulent shoots and roots in a short time.
(d) Easily cover the ground.
(e) Grow on poor soils.

(ii) Farm yard manure: This is a mixture of animal droppings, urine, food remains and beddings or litter. Manure from poultry, goats and sheep are the richest forms of farm yard manure. They are followed by those of pigs, horse and cattle.

The materials are heaped under a shed to decompose for sometime before use. They could be used direct on the farm. They should be properly handled, as too much exposure may lead to breakdown of the nutrients. The more volatile constituents such as nitrogen could be lost as ammonia gas. It is often better to mix manures from different types of animals to be used as pen manure than to apply only one type.
The quality of farm yard manure depends on:
(i) The species of animals producing the materials
(ii) Age and condition of the animal.
(iii) The type of feed given to the animal.
(iv) Nature and amount of litter. That is, whether absorbent materials are used as beddings
(v) The handling and methods of storage before use on the farm.

Farm yard manure can be applied by broadcasting before tillage especially when the soil is moist or wet. It can be spread on the bed and mixed with the soil before planting.


Advantages
1. It contains ail the required plant nutrients.
2. It is reasonably cheap as it can be obtained from the farm.
3. It has a lasting effect on the soil.
4. It binds loose sandy soil together.
5. It also loosens compact clay soils.
6. It enables the soil to absorb and retain moisture easily.


Disadvantages
1. It is very bulky.
2. It requires much labour during application.
3. It has the tendency to encourage rapid growth of weeds.

(iii) Compost manure: This is the decayed plant and animal remains in heaps or stacks or pits, used as
manure on the farm.

The materials needed for compost making include grass cuttings, hedge trimmings, weeds, vegetable wastes, leaves and otner organic wastes from the kitchen. Ash or lime or animal dungs or old compost, chemical activators such as sulphate of ammonia are also added. Young and succulent plant parts should be used instead of woody and tough parts. This is because decomposition is easier and contains much nutrients for healthy plant growth.

A suitable area of the farm, preferably near the edge, should be chosen. The area should not be water-logged. When prepared during the dry season, there should be a nearby water source.

Methods of compost making: Two methods can be used in compost making. These are the pit method and the stack or heap method. The pit method is used in areas of low rainfall or in the dry season while the stack or heap method is used in high rainfall areas or during the rainy season. Whichever method is used , the processes as well as the materials used remain the same.

Processes of compost making
1. Dig lour pits or peg out four areas.
2. Add kitchen wastes, yam peelings, orange skin and pulp, rotten fruits and anything that rots easily.
3. Then, add grass cuttings. hedge trimmings, vegetable wastes and leaves or the desired height is compress.
4. Repeat this process until the pit is filled or the desired height reached if heap method is used.
5. Cover the top with soil to prevent the entering of flies.
6. Insert a stick at one end or at the centre in case of pit method. This is called a "tester". It detects if decomposition is going on or not. The stick will be hot if there is decomposition after about 5 days or else, it will be cold.
7. Turn materials or the content of pit A or heap A into B after two weeks. Refill pit or heap A. Repeat this step until pit or heap D is reached and the desired quantity obtained.
8. Cover the final products with suitable materials until it is ready for use. This will prevent the loss of important nutrients due to strong sun or rain water.

‘Starters' are materials used to initiate decomposition process of compost materials. Examples are animal wastes, old compost or materials that rot easily.

Chemicals such as sulphate of ammonia could be used to induce decaying process in the absence of starters. Such chemicals are called 'activators''.


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