fabioclass

DISEASE ORGANISMS





Types of livestock diseases

An animal is said to be diseased when there is a change from its normal way or state of its body processes. This prevents its normal body function.
As a result the animal becomes weak, silk, ill and cannot give its maximum performance when needed, as per egg production, work execution, milk production and meat/wool production.

Animal diseases are generally caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and other parasites, or they may be due to metabolic disorder. Some of the livestock diseases of importance are discussed below. YOU CAN SEE HERE FOR SOME SOUL TEACHINGS




1. VIRAL DISEASES.
I. Food and mouth Disease
This disease is common in areas with poor drainage systems and high humidity. The animals affected are goat, sheep, cattle and Pigs.
Causes or causal organism/
It is causes by virus picked up in the soil. So keeping animals or livestock requires great dexterity and care





Symptoms
The symptoms of the disease include formation of blisters on the mucus membrane of the mouth, on the skin, between and around the hoofs, as well as the teat.


METHOD OF TRANSMISSION
The disease could be transmitted through infected materials such as urine, milk, meat and excrement of infected animals. It can also be transmitted mechanically by humans or animals.








CONTROL METHOD.

The control methods are as follows;
(i) Infected animals should be isolated.
(ii) Contaminated materials should be buried or burnt.
(iii) Milk from infected animals should not be consumed.
(iv) Animals should be vaccinated regularly.







2. RINDERPEST

This is an important disease in areas with large numbers of animals or livestock. The disease attacks cattle, sheep and goats.





CAUSAL AGENT

It is causes by a virus.





SYMPTOMS;
The symptoms which are evident are high fever, weakness, difficult breathing, and formation of lesions on mucous membranes of the nose, anus and the eyes, pus discharge from the lesions mixed with blood. The faeces smell badly and the animal may die.


METHOD OF TRANSMISSION
Rinderpest is contagious and transmission I therefore through contact. Contamination of feeds and water by excrement from an infected animal helps to spread the disease.







CONTROL

This can be achieved as listed below.
i. Animals should be regularly vaccinated.
ii. Only healthy animals should be introduced into the herd
iii. There should be strict prohibition of cattle movement from place to place so as to control the spread of the disease.





3. NEWCASTLE DISEASE


This a very common disease found among fowls anywhere in the world. It attacks all categories of fowl either young or old.


CAUSES OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE


Newcastle disease is caused by a virus.

SYMPTOMS OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE



The disease shows three clinical features

i. Respiratory symptoms
ii. Digestive symptom
iii. Nervous symptoms

All these symptoms may combine in a situation. Respiratory and digestive symptoms are the early signs of the disease while the nervous symptom is the last stage of Newcastle disease.



1. RESPIRATORY SYMPTOM
Definite sneezing, coughing, nasal discharge dypnoea ……. Resulting in difficult breathing



2. DIGESTIVE SYMPTOM
The birds usually shows lack of appetite and diarrhea

3. NERVOUS SYMPTOM
The bird practically shows sign of paralysis, muscular tremor, somersaulting and cycling movement.




TREATMENT OR CURE
NEWCASTLE DISEASE HAS NO KNOWN CURE AS AT THE TIME OF WRITING THIS POST

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Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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