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METHODS OF CROP HARVESTING


8. Harvesting
When crops have reached maturity or ripened, the products are then gathered (harvested) for use.


The common crop parts normall\ harvested for use include tubers, leaves, fruits, seeds and others.
Harvesting of crops can be carried out manually through the use of knife, sickle, cutlass and hoe. In very large farms, harvesting is done with the aid of mechanical harvesters and other devices.

9. Farm Level Processing
Processing is the conversion of crop products into other forms more acceptable or convenient to the consumers. In some instances. processing starts from the farm site. For example, the extraction of melon seeds from the pods and pulp. and the subsequent drying is ii form.of processing. The peeling of cassava takes place in the farm before final conversion into garr, fufu or starch. In cocoa production, the extraction of the beans from the ripe pod, fermentation and drying of the beans take place, in most cases, in the farm.



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Other forms of processing that cannot he carried out in the farm site are done in factories where machines are installed for the purpose.

10. Storage
Storage involves keeping farm products for future use. When i he farmer has harvested and at times processed, the last stage of the post-planting operation is storage. There arc many storage methods that the farmers can use depending on the type of product. This include the use of barn in the case of yam tubers, the use of cribs and silos in the case of grains such as maize and the use of refrigerators and cold storage in the case of perishable products, such as fruits and vegetables.


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Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. (a) List the pre-planting operations normally carried out the farmers
(b) Describe two of the pre-planting operations.
2. Write very short notes on the following planting operations:
(i) Dale of planting
(ii) Planting distances
(iv) Seed rate
(v) Planting depth, and
(vi) Capping.
3. (a) What is a nursery
(b) Name five types of nursery

4. Enumerate ten post planting activities carried out by farmers
5. Write short notes on five of the following post-planting activities:
(a) Thinning (e) Pest Control
(b) Mulching (f) Harvesting
(c) Supplying (g) Storage
(e) Weeding





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