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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ALL FARMING SYSTEM


MONO-CROPPING AND MIXED FARMING SYSTEM

Mono-cropping
This is the growing of only one type of crop (such as maize) on a piece of land. It could be for a season or for several years as in bush=fallowing farming. The system is also termed sole cropping.

Advantages of mono-cropping

1. It makes possible the use of machines in farm operation.
2. It leads higher productivity per hectare,
3. It also leads to specialization among farmers.
4. The control of weeds is easy. This is because herbicides can be used

Disadvantages of mono-cropping

1. It is risky because crop failure arising from pest, diseases or weather conditions will result in total loss of income to the farmer for that year.
2. The system encourages the rapid spread of pests and diseases on the farm.
3. Labour may not be efficiently utilized throughout the year.
4. It does not afford the farmer a variety of crops.

2.

Mixed cropping

This is also called multiple cropping because it involves the planting, of more than one type of crop on the same farmland at in the farm. It is very common under subsistence agriculture and in are where farmlands are limited. read land tenure system of agriculture


Under mixed cropping, the farmer could practice any of the following










(a)

Inter-planting:

This is the growing of two crops together on the same land. The crop which was planted first is also harvest first while the one planted last remains on the plot to harvested later read about harvester here. An example is the growing of maize and together. Maize, which is usually planted first, is also harvest first. Maize is therefore said to be inter-planted with yam.

(b)

Inter-cropping:

This is when two crops are grown together with the crop planted last being harvested first. Usually the c planted last has shorter lifespan than the one planted first, example is the planting of melon after yam has been plant The melon will be harvested first while the yam continues on plot. Yam is therefore said to be inter-cropped with melon.

Advantages of mixed cropping

1. It affords the farmer a variety of crops.
2. It serves as insurance against the failure of one type of crops.
3. It minimizes the spread of diseases and pests on the farm.
4. It enables the crops to make efficient use of soil nutrients.
5. The ensures efficient utilization of labour throughout the year.

Disadvantages of mixed cropping

1. It does not encourage the use of machines on the farm.
2. It may lead to rapid exhaustion of soil nutrients if legumes not included.
3. It is labour intensive.
4. Pests and disease agents may persist on the farmland. This is because there are always food and alternative hosts for them.

3.

Continuous cropping

This is the practice of putting a farmland under cultivation continuously, that is from year to year.

It may take any of forms:


(a)

Annual cropping:

Planting annual crops which are replaced after harvesting. This means the land is cleared, tilled and cropped every season. This is common where land is scarce

(b) Permanent cropping: This involves planting and maintaining the crops, usually permanent crops continuously on the farm.

Advantages of continuous cropping

1 It reduces the cost of land preparation after the initial clearing and tilling.
2 It enables the farmer to construct permanent structures such as storage structures on the farm.
3 It tan be practiced where land is scarce.

Disadvantages of continuous cropping

1. The fertility of the soil is easily exhausted.
2. It leads to destruction of soil structure.
3. It encourages soil erosion.
4. Yields me normally reduced with increasing years of cropping.
5. It encourages build-up of crop pests and disease agents.
6. It required high amount of money to keep the land fertile and productive.

4.

Crop Rotation

This involves the planting of different types of crop in different plots on a farmland during one season; and at the beginning of the next season, the crops are changed from their respective plots, while following a definite order or sequence. The system combines mixed cropping with continuous cropping and is mainly practiced by institutions of learning.

For crop rotation to be successful, certain principles must be followed


Principles of Crop Rotation








(a) The same type of crop should not be allowed to follow each other on the same plot. For example, maize should not follow maize.
(b) Crops that belong to the same group should not also follow each other on the same plot, e.g. cassava should not follow yam, or to follow maize.
(c) Crops that have deep roots like yam and cassava, should be followed with those that have shallow roots suclh as maize and groundnut.
(d) Crops that consume a lot of nitrogen such as the-cereal group should be followed by those that add nitrogen to the soil such as maize and the legume group,
(e) Crops likely to be affected by the same disease and/or pest should not follow each other on the same plot.

The number of crops involved in the rotation will determine the. type of rotation. Therefore, there could be a two-year, three-year, or four-year crop rotation.

How to Design a Four-Year Crop Rotation

(a) Divide the farmland into four plots.
(b) Choose the crops to cultivate.
(c) Plant one crop on each plot, making sure the principles guiding the adoption of the system are adhered to.
(d) At the end of one season, shift the crop from plot B to A, C to B, D to C and A to D as shown in Figure 3.2.1.
(e) Follow this sequence until the fourth year is reached.




Year Plot A Plot B Plot C Plot D
1 Maize Cassava Groundnut Yam and Melon
2 Cassava Groundnut Yam and Melon Maize
3 Groundnut Yam and Melon Maize Cassava
4 Yam and Melon Maize Cassava Groundnut

Figure 3.2.1: A Four-Year Crop Rotation,


Advantages of crop rotation

1. It helps to maintain soil fertility.
2. It makes efficient use of soil nutrients.
3. The farmer has access to a variety of crops.
4. It minimizes the spread of diseases and pests and helps to check weeds
5. It reduces soil erosion.
6. It leads to efficient utilization of labour.
7. It is a good practice where land is scarce.

Disadvantages of crop rotation

1. It is labour intensive.
2. Crop yields may decrease with years except additional manures or fertilizers are applied.
3. It leads to destruction of soil structure which may facilitate soil erosion.

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You can read some of most interesting topics below
Agricultural biology topics
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY

30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
LEGUMES

99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM








154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE