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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE Farm mechanization has the following advantages 1. ...

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Piercing and Sucking Insect Pests



Piercing and Sucking Insect Pests

The mouth parts of these insects are shaped tike injection needles and are thus adapted to piercing (that is penetrating into the plant part) and sucking (that is removing plant fluid).
here is my post on biting and chewing insects
you can also read more here on insects

These piercing and sucking habits of the insects lead to] destruction of plant tissues, development of holes through which disease organisms can enter into the plant system and transfer or harmful germs from diseased plants to healthy ones. All these lea to weakening and eventual death of the plants affected.
Good examples of piercing and sucking insect pests are aphids (plant lice), cotton stainer, mealy bugs, capsid bugs, and scali insects






Figure 2.8.2A: Cotton Stainer



DIAGRAM


Figure 2.8.2b: Aphid

3. Boring insect Pests
These are insects that bore into plant tissues and seeds, kamples are stem borers of cereals and weevils such as beans, rice M maize weevils.

Other insects pests which may not fall into the above groups have been found to affect crops. An example is the weaving insect fftich causes the folding of the leaves of crops particularly vegetables.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA



49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS




137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

NAME OF PEST CROPS AFFECTED NATURE OF DAMAGE TO CROPS PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES


1 Stem borer (Sesamia spp
Cereals e.g. rice, maize sorghum Pest eats up the juicy centres of stems thus causing the crop to collapse and die Burn all crop remains in the farm after harvest, uproot and burn affected crops. Spray with gammaling 20 or DDT.


2 Army worms Grain crops e.g. Rice, Maize, Sorghum They eat up the leaves and stems of the crops leading to mechanical damage of crops. Plant early. Spray with an insecticide such as gammalin 20.


3 Ear worms Maize These larvae bore into the cobs or ears of maize thereby eating up the fresh grains Early planting spray with gammalin 20


4 Aphids Cocoa, groundnut, cowpea They bite and pierce through the outer texture of growing plants. Sucking out the sap leading to stunting, distortion and defoliation in affected plants Spray affected crops with insecticides


5 Pod Borers (Maruca tesulalis) Legumes e.g. Cowpea They cause damage to the tender parts of the plants, by eating up the flower buds and pods. This leads to reduction in yield. Plant with resistant varieties. Spray with gammalin 20 or diagram.

roles of government in agriculture

6 Variegated Grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates) Yam, vegetables, rice, cassava, etc. Eats up leaves of plants. Growing point and stem may be eaten too. Spray with gammalin 20 or vetox 85



7 Yam Beetle (Heteroligus meles) Yam Feeds on tubers of yams in the soil causing holes on them Dust yam planting materials with aldrin dust before planting.

you can read the classification of crops here

8 Cassava mealy bug (phenacoccus Manihoti) Cassava Affected plants become stunted since the internodes are reduced. The tip begins to develop bunchy tops, the leaves die off finally, the whole plant looks like a candle stick. Plant early. Dip cassava cuttings in 0.1% Rogor or ultracide solution for 1 minute before planting

read about animal diseases and parasites here

9 Capsids Cocoa The insects attack young shoots of cocoa and introduce toxic saliva into the plant. This kills the plant Spraying with gammalin 20


10 Cotton stainer (dysdercus superstitutious) Cotton Attacks opening cotton bolls thus staining the lint Spray with insecticide

you can read about crop pest here in detail

11 Weevils Rice, maize, beans Eat up the cotyledons of stored products Spray with insectiicde


12 Fruits worm The larva eats up the fruits Spray with vetox

13 Termites Oil palm, cassava, sugar cane, yam, etc They destroy roots and seedlings of plants especially when young Spray with aldrex 40. Water crops regularly in the dry season.
14 Boll worms Cotton They eat up succulent boll. Bolls drop off prematurely Pick and burn affected bolls. Spray with insecticides




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