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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

Piercing and Sucking Insect Pests



Piercing and Sucking Insect Pests

The mouth parts of these insects are shaped like injection needles and are thus adapted to piercing (that is penetrating into the plant part) and sucking (that is removing plant fluid). read more about holozoic mechanisms mode of feeding here
here is my post on biting and chewing insects
you can also read more here on insects

These piercing and sucking habits of the insects lead to] destruction of plant tissues, development of holes through which disease organisms can enter into the plant system and transfer or harmful germs from diseased plants to healthy ones. All these lea to weakening and eventual death of the plants affected.
Good examples of piercing and sucking insect pests are aphids (plant lice), cotton stainer, mealy bugs, capsid bugs, and scali insects


3.

Boring insect Pests

These are insects that bore into plant tissues and seeds, kamples are stem borers of cereals and weevils such as beans, rice M maize weevils.

Other insects pests which may not fall into the above groups have been found to affect crops. An example is the weaving insect which causes the folding of the leaves of crops particularly vegetables.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES







3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS

61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE






COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER

129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS




NAME OF PEST CROPS AFFECTED NATURE OF DAMAGE TO CROPS PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES

1 Stem borer Sesamia spp
Cereals e.g. rice, maize sorghum Pest eats up the juicy centres of stems thus causing the crop to collapse and die Burn all crop remains in the farm after harvest, uproot and burn affected crops. Spray with gammaling 20 or DDT.


2 Army worms Grain crops e.g. Rice, Maize, Sorghum They eat up the leaves and stems of the crops leading to mechanical damage of crops. Plant early. Spray with an insecticide such as gammalin 20.


3 Ear worms Maize These larvae bore into the cobs or ears of maize thereby eating up the fresh grains Early planting spray with gammalin 20


4 Aphids Cocoa, groundnut, cowpea They bite and pierce through the outer texture of growing plants. Sucking out the sap leading to stunting, distortion and defoliation in affected plants Spray affected crops with insecticides


5 Pod Borers (Maruca tesulalis) Legumes e.g. Cowpea They cause damage to the tender parts of the plants, by eating up the flower buds and pods. This leads to reduction in yield. Plant with resistant varieties. Spray with gammalin 20 or diagram.

roles of government in agriculture

6 Variegated Grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates) Yam, vegetables, rice, cassava, etc. Eats up leaves of plants. Growing plannt and stem may be eaten too. Spray with gammalin 20 or vetox 85


7 Yam Beetle (Heteroligus meles) Yam Feeds on tubers of yams in the soil causing holes on them Dust yam planting materials with aldrin dust before planting.

you can read the classification of crops here

8 Cassava mealy bug (phenacoccus Manihoti) Cassava Affected plants become stunted since the internodes are reduced. The tip begins to develop bunchy tops, the leaves die off finally, the whole plant looks like a candle stick. Plant early. Dip cassava cuttings in 0.1% Rogor or ultracide solution for 1 minute before planting

read about animal diseases and parasites here

9 Capsids Cocoa The insects attack young shoots of cocoa and introduce toxic saliva into the plant. This kills the plant Spraying with gammalin 20


10 Cotton stainer (dysdercus superstitutious) Cotton Attacks opening cotton pods thus staining the lint Spray with insecticide

you can read about crop pest here in detail

11 Weevils Rice, maize, beans Eat up the cotyledons of stored products Spray with insectiicde


12 Fruits worm The larva eats up the fruits Spray with vetox

13 Termites Oil palm, cassava, sugar cane, yam, etc They destroy roots and seedlings of plants especially when young Spray with aldrex 40. Water crops regularly in the dry season.
14 Boll worms Cotton They eat up succulent boll. Bolls drop off prematurely Pick and burn affected bolls. Spray with insecticides

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