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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

PRE-PLANTING OPERATIONS IN AGRICULTURE



Pre-planting operations

These are operations carried out before sowing. They include choosing of site, clearing, stumping, plotting, ploughing, harrowing, and ridging.
1.

Choice of site

The choice of a farm site is a part of the activities before planting.
This is guarded by:
(a) The nature of the land (Topography): This is, whether the land is hilly or level. A fairly level land should be chosen to reduce the cost of land preparation and erosion control problem.
(b) The type of soil: This should be considered in the choice of farm site or location. This is because soil is the medium for plants growth and poor soil will produce poor yield.
(c) Availability of inputs such as labour and planting materials: The workers to be employed that will work in the farm must be available in the area where the farm is to be located. Crop planting materials should also be available. The ease of transporting farm produce and sale also guard the choice of a farm site.

2.

Clearing of site

The farm site is cleared by means of hand tools such as the cutlass or mechanical equipment such as bulldozer. The equipment used depends on the nature of the vegetation in the area. In the rain forest belt, cutlass may be required for brushing the under growth while axe, motor saw or chain saw and cutlass are used to fell the trees. The trees are chopped into pieces. On large scale, bulldozer may be used to remove forest vegetation. Burning can be carried out on the cut under growths and plants, especially in the rain forest area. This helps to add ash which contains mineral used by the soil alkaline.

Alkalinity of the soil leads to increase in nitrification process and available cation.

The remains of burnt plants are packed and re-burnt. The larger trunks are left to decay in case of small holding, but bulldozers may be used to push them off in the case of mechanized farming.







3.

Stumping

This is the removal of plant stumps and roots from the soil, it is a tedious operation. The practice is usually, avoided in small scale private farms. Where crop rotation system is practiced, stumping is done. This is usually in school farms, government farms and corporate farms such as cutlass, axe, pick axe, mechanical stumper and bulldozer are used in stumping.

4.

Plotting or laying out

The act of dividing the farm land into sections is called plotting or laying out. This is usually based on the report of soil survey. Soil survey shows the nature of the land (Topography). Soil types nutrients status, soil and water conservation methods to be sued on the land. It also shows where to lacate the various farm stead.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA







49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS












137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143.







Plotting can be done by using the 3-4-5 method

read land survey here
How to use the 3-4-5 metric method in farm plotting: Erect a pole at about the centre of the farmland. From the pole A, take a base line AB 4m long with a string tied to the pole. Tie another string 3m long to the pole at A and extend to C. A third string 5m long is also tied to pole B and is extended to meet pole C thereby forming a triangle with a right angle at A. arrange poles along the line AB to the end of the farm. The same is done to the side line AC. Ensure that you sight them to give straight lines. The length and breadth of the farm so measured will make it easy to divide the land into plots. Paths are used to demarcate the land into blocks.


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