PRE-PLANTING OPERATIONS IN AGRICULTURE


Pre-planting operations


These are operations carried out before sowing. They include choosing of site, clearing, stumping, plotting, ploughing, harrowing, and ridging.

1.

Choice of site

The choice of a farm site is a part of the activities before planting.

This is guarded by:
(a) The nature of the land (Topography): This is, whether the land is hilly or level. A fairly level land should be chosen to reduce the cost of land preparation and erosion control problem.
(b) The type of soil: This should be considered in the choice of farm site or location. This is because soil is the medium for plants growth and poor soil will produce poor yield.
(c) Availability of inputs such as labour and planting materials: The workers to be employed that will work in the farm must be available in the area where the farm is to be located. Crop planting materials should also be available. The ease of transporting farm produce and sale also guard the choice of a farm site.

2.

Clearing of site






The farm site is cleared by means of hand tools such as the cutlass or mechanical equipment such as bulldozer. The equipment used depends on the nature of the vegetation in the area. In the rain forest belt, cutlass may be required for brushing the under growth while axe, motor saw or chain saw and cutlass are used to fell the trees. The trees are chopped into pieces. On large scale, bulldozer may be used to remove forest vegetation. Burning can be carried out on the cut under growths and plants, especially in the rain forest area. This helps to add ash which contains mineral used by the soil alkaline.

Alkalinity of the soil leads to increase in nitrification process and available cation.

The remains of burnt plants are packed and re-burnt. The larger trunks are left to decay in case of small holding, but bulldozers may be used to push them off in the case of mechanized farming.

3.

Stumping

This is the removal of plant stumps and roots from the soil, it is a tedious operation. The practice is usually, avoided in small scale private farms. Where crop rotation system is practiced, stumping is done. This is usually in school farms, government farms and corporate farms such as cutlass, axe, pick axe, mechanical stumper and bulldozer are used in stumping.

4.

Plotting or laying out

The act of dividing the farm land into sections is called plotting or laying out. This is usually based on the report of soil survey. Soil survey shows the nature of the land (Topography). Soil types nutrients status, soil and water conservation methods to be sued on the land. It also shows where to lacate the various farm stead.


Plotting can be done by using the 3-4-5 method


How to use the 3-4-5 metric method in farm plotting: Erect a pole at about the centre of the farmland. From the pole A, take a base line AB 4m long with a string tied to the pole. Tie another string 3m long to the pole at A and extend to C. A third string 5m long is also tied to pole B and is extended to meet pole C thereby forming a triangle with a right angle at A. arrange poles along the line AB to the end of the farm. The same is done to the side line AC. Ensure that you sight them to give straight lines. The length and breadth of the farm so measured will make it easy to divide the land into plots. Paths are used to demarcate the land into blocks.



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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS




41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
124. HUMUS






125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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