fabioclass

prevention of insect pests



1. Classify insect pests into feeding groups
2. Name important field and storage pest of crops
3. Identify nature of damage to crops
4. State preventive and control measures
5. State other important pests of crops
6. Identify the nature of their damage to crops
7. State the preventive and control measures






8.1 Classification of crop insect pest into main feeding groups. A pest is an organism which causes damage to crops. Insect pest are those insects that cause physical damage to crops. Insects belong to the group arthropod. Generally insect pests reduce crop yield both in quality and quantity.

1. Biting and chewing insect pest:
The mouth parts of pests in this group are especially adapted to biting and chewing of various plant parts.
The mouth parts are made up of two hard biting jaws (mandibles). In addition to these, they also have two jaws (maxillae).
They have two lips – flat upper lip (larum) and lower lip (labium) while the maxillae are used to push the crop parts into the mouth, the mandibles are used for the biting and chewing since they are very strong.

These insects can feed on any part of the plant including leaves, fruits, stems, flowers and even roots. Some common biting and chewing insect pests are:
beetles, grasshoppers, termites, crickets, caterpillars of moths and butter flies, locust, army worms and so on.

They feed on many crops such as okro, maize, rice, vegetables, cassava and fruit trees.

2. Piercing and Sucking Insect Pests:
The mouth parts of these insects are shaped tike injection needles and are thus adapted to piercing (that is penetrating into the plant part) and sucking (that is removing plant fluid).
These piercing and sucking habits of the insects lead to] destruction of plant tissues, development of holes through which disease organisms can enter into the plant system and transfer or harmful germs from diseased plants to healthy ones.
All these lead to weakening and eventual death of the plants affected.

Good examples of piercing and sucking insect pests are aphids (plant lice), cotton stainer, mealy bugs, capsid bugs, and scali insects DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.2A: Cotton Stainer DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.2b: Aphid




AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science

3. Boring insect Pests:
These are insects that bore into plant tissues and seeds, kamples are stem borers of cereals and weevils such as beans, rice M maize weevils. Other insects pests which may not fall into the above groups have been found to affect crops. An example is the weaving insect fftich causes the folding of the leaves of crops particularly vegetables. DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.3: Bean Weevil NO.

NAME OF Pest,
CROPS AFFECTED
NATURE OF DAMAGE TO CROPS
PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES

1 Stem borer
(Sesamia spp) Cereals e.g. rice, maize sorghum
this Pest eats up the juicy centres of stems thus causing the crop to collapse and die
Burn all crop remains in the farm after harvest, uproot and burn affected crops.
Spray with gammaling 20 or DDT.

2 Army worms
Grain crops e.g. Rice, Maize, Sorghum
They eat up the leaves and stems of the crops leading to mechanical damage of crops.

Plant early. Spray with an insecticide such as gammalin 20.

3 Ear worms
Maize
These larvae bore into the cobs or ears of maize thereby eating up the fresh grains
Early planting and spray with gammalin 20

4 Aphids
Cocoa, groundnut, cowpea
They bite and pierce through the outer texture of growing plants. Sucking out the sap leading to stunting, distortion and defoliation in affected plants
Spray affected crops with insecticides

5 Pod Borers
(Maruca tesulalis) Legumes e.g. Cowpea
They cause damage to the tender parts of the plants, by eating up the flower buds and pods.
This leads to reduction in yield.
Plant with resistant varieties.
Spray with gammalin 20 or diagram.

6 Variegated Grasshopper
(Zonocerus variegates) Yam, vegetables, rice, cassava, etc.
Eats up leaves of plants.
Growing point and stem may be eaten too. Spray with gammalin 20 or vetox 85



7 Yam Beetle
(Heteroligus meles)
Yam Feeds on tubers of yams in the soil causing holes on them.
Dust yam planting materials with aldrin dust before planting.


8 Cassava mealy bug
(phenacoccus Manihoti) Cassava

Affected plants become stunted since the inter-nodes are reduced.

The tip begins to develop bunchy tops, the leaves die off finally, the whole plant looks like a candle stick.

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science

Plant early. Dip cassava cuttings in 0.1% Rogor or Ultrasuede solution for 1 minute before planting

9 Capsids Cocoa;
The insects attack young shoots of cocoa and introduce toxic saliva into the plant.
This kills the plant Spraying with gammalin 20

10 Cotton stainer (dysdercus superstitutious)
Cotton strainer Attacks opening cotton bolls thus staining the lint
Spray with insecticide

11 Weevils
Rice, maize, beans.
Eat up the cotyledons of stored products
Spray with insecticide

12 Fruits worm
The larva eats up the fruits Spray with vet-ox 85

13 Termites-Oil palm, cassava, sugar cane, yam, etc
They destroy roots and seedlings of plants especially when young Spray with aldrex 40.
Water crops regularly in the dry season.

14 Boll worms Cotton
They eat up succulent boll. Bolls drop off prematurely.
Pick and burn affected bolls.
Spray with insecticides


8.3 Other Pests of Crops

1. Bird
These attack mainly grain crops such as maize, rice, sorghum and barley.
They also attack fruits in the field. Examples of these birds are Weaver birds (Quela), parrots, etc
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science


A Bird.

(a) Nature of Damage: They peck out planted seeds, eat up grains on the field and destroy leaves of some plants such as oil palm.
They also eat ripe fruits such as pawpaw, mango, and cashew.

(b) Control:
1. Use of scare crows
2. Spraying chemicals such as furadan with aircraft,
3. Shooting with catapult or gun. Scare Crow for birds and mammalian pest in farms.


2. Rodents
These include rats, grass-cutters, African rabbits and hare.

A Rodent (Grass-cutter)
(a) Nature of Damage:
They cut down and eat various parts of the crop especially cereal and tuber crops. Grass-cutters eat up rice, young palm seedlings and maize plants.
Rats eat up stored produce like tubers and grains. Hare eat up planted grains.

(b) Control:
(i) Use of poison baits (ii) Use of traps (iii) By shooting with guns, (iv) Use of rat gums.

3. Other Mammalian Pests
These include monkey, deer, antelopes and bush pig.
They do a lot of damage to crops in the farm by uprooting eating them up.
For example,
monkey eat up plantains, banana maize and cocoa pods.

Control:
(i) Trapping (ii) Shooting with gun.

7b: Giant Rat (Cricetomys gambianus).


AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science

don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below
Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

Please feel free to share while using our comment box below.
Thanks for sharing

STUDY QUESTIONS
1. How can insect pests be classified using their feeding habits?
2. (a) Name 10 insect pests you know. (b) For each one, slate the crop it affects, the damage done to the crop and control measure of the pest.

3. (a) Apart from insect pest, name three other pests you
(b) Which crops do they affect? (b) how can they be controlled?

4. Classify the following into biting and chewing piercing I and sucking, and boring insect pests:- Beetles, Aphids. Stem borer, caps ids, weevils, locusts, mealy bugs, crickets, cotton Steiner,


5. Itemize what you would use for rodents attack on your farm.

oppurtunities

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE Farm mechanization has the following advantages 1. TIMELINESS OF OPERATION farm mechanization ensure...

popular post of all time