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EROSION, TYPES OF SOIL EROSION AND CONTROL


Soil erosion

Erosion is the removal or wearing away of the surface soil by different agents.
1. Types of soil erosion
There are four types of soil erosion depending on how the erosion occurs. These are:
1. Splash or raindrop erosion.
2. Sheet erosion.
3. Rill erosion.
4. Gully erosion.

(a) Splash or raindrop erosion:
This is the first stage of the erosion caused by rainfall. It is the removal of soil particles by little raindrops. The soil particles scattered by raindrops block the soil pores.
This will make it difficult for the rain water to the soil. The result is that the water will begin to flow gradually on the surface of the soil.

(b) Sheet erosion:
Sheet erosion follows splash. It occurs when raindrops cause soil particles to block soil pores. Rain water then shoves slowly over the soil surface.
The soil particles are then removed or carried away evenly. This can also be caused by wind. The wind blowing over the soil that is exposed can carry away soil particles uniformly and deposit them somewhere else":

These agents are:
1. Water 4. Ice
2. Wind 5. Man.
3. Animals
However, water is the major agent of erosion in Nigeria.
The process of erosion involves three stages. The detachment of soil particles, transportation and deposition.

1.

Types of erosion

There are four types of soil erosion depending on how the fusion occurs. These are:
1. Splash or raindrop erosion.
2. Sheet erosion.
3. Rill erosion.
4. Gully erosion.

(a) Splash or raindrop erosion: This is the first stage of the erosion caused by rainfall. It is the removal of soil particles by tiny raindrops. The soil particles scattered by raindrops block the soil pores. This will make it difficult for the rain water to the soil. The result is that the water will begin to flow gradually on the surface of the soil.

(b) Sheet erosion: Sheet erosion follows splash. It occurs when raindrops cause soil particles to block soil pores. Rain water then Hows slowly over the soil surface. The soil particles are then removed or carried away evenly. This can also be caused by wind. The wind blowing over the soil that is exposed can carry away soil particles uniformly and deposit them somewhere else":








(c) Rill erosion: Sheet erosion develops into rill erosion. This occurs when raindrops on the soil surface cause gradual removal of soil particles in suspension along narrow channels.

The channels may be existing before^They could be caused by the rain water itself. The size of the "channels, or rills becomes larger because of downward cutting. This eventually leads to gully erosion.

(d) Gully erosion: Channels that cannot be smoothened out by ordinary cultivation are referred to as gullies. Gully erosion takes place when rain water does not sink into the soil, it therefore runs off over the land. The soil particles being carried by the rain water help to cut deeper and deeper into the soil. Sudden drop in slope or channel increases the cutting power of the water. Where the land is very sloppy and the soil loose, large gullies are easily formed.







2.

how to Prevent and control erosion

Prevention and control of erosion can be achieved through the following practices:
(a) Covering the land with vegetation: Covering the soil with plants prevents the soil from being exposed to agents of erosion such as water and wind. The planting of cover crops is to maintain adequate ground cover. Soil fertility is also increased because of leaf fall. Water infiltration is encourage and run-off is reduced because of the vegetative cover.
(a) Crop rotation: A well designed crop rotation ensures that the land is always protected against erosion. Where legumes are included in the rotation, they help to control erosion because they cover the soil surface.
(c) Application of organic and inorganic manures: The addition of compost and farm yard manures make the soil cohesive and absorb water.' They also add plant nutrients to the soil. The addition of lime fertilizers such as calcium triococarbonate (IV) to the soil causes loose soil particles to be bound together. This improves the structure of the soil and the soil cannot be carried a|way easily whether by water or wind.

(d) Mulching: This involves covering the soil with mulch materials such as papers, grasses and stones. It prevents direct conduit between the soil and raindrops.

Mulching increases water infiltration and reduces sheet erosion. Where mulching is done with plant materials, organic is added to the soil. This helps to bind loose soil particles together.
(e) Preventing bush burning: Setting the bush on fire destroys the organic matters of the soil. During bush burning, organic matter and many agriculturally important living organisms are destroyed. The soil is therefore exposed to agents of erosion. Where bush burning is avoided, the organic matter and micro-organisms present help to improve the soil structure and control erosion.


(f) Preventing overgrazing: Overgrazing of pasture or field could occur if animals are allowed to remain for a long time on the same land. Almost every vegetation in such a place is eaten up stud will not have time to grow again. Such land is exposed to poision agents. The feet of animals also destroy soil structure and cause the formation of hard layers or hard pans below the soil surface. This makes infiltration difficult and increases surface run-off. Overgrazing by farm animals should therefore be avoided.
(g) Establishment of wind breaks: The planting of trees prevents soil erosion by acting as wind breaks. This is a good erosion preventive measure especially in the Savannah regions and where the soil is sandy.
(h) Contour strip cropping: This involves the growing of close ginning plants such as grasses and row crops such as maize in alternate strips across the slope of the land. This ensure adequate cover for the land. It therefore reduces the speed of moving water and its load.

(i) Terracing: These are embankments constructed across the slope at regular interval to conduct water from the land in such a way as to keep erosion under control. They reduce the length of slope that may aid erosion. Terraces are built in form of steps along the contour of the land or across the slope.

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You can read some of most interesting topics below
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

88.






89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT



154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155.
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

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