fabioclass

SYSTEMS OF POULTRY MANAGEMENT


10.1 Poultry

What is


Poultry? The word Poultry refers to all birds that man has been able to rear over the years. He has decided to rear or domesticate them because of their economic value to him. Such birds include:

(a) fowls or chickens
(b) turkey
(c) ducks
(d) guinea fowl
(e) pigeons
(f) geese
(g) ostriches
(h) game birds, e.g. parrot. Importance of Poultry: Poultry provides the following:
1. Money - through the sale of eggs and its meat
2. Eggs - source of protein
3. Meat (chicken) - source of protein
4. Feathers - for making high quality pillows and mattresses dropping and it is very rich in plant nutrients.
5. Poultry manure (Guano) – this is obtained from the birds dropping and it is very rich in plant nutrients
6. Game - some birds such as the parrot and cocks are used for games.

DIAGRAM
Figure 2.10.1: Domestic fowl

Some terms associated with poultry
Cock – Adult male fowl
Drake – Adult male duck
Guinea cock – Adult male guinea fowl
Gander - Adult male geese
Tom - Adult female turkey
Hen - Adult male fowl
Duck - Adult male duck
Guinea hen - Adult female guinea fowl
Goose - Adult female geese
Turkey hen - Adult female turkey
Chick – A young fowl
Duckling – A young duck
Guinea Chick – A young guinea fowl
Gosling – A young geese
Proult – A young turkey
Laver - A laying hen
Broiler - A meat producing bird
Cockerel - Young male fowl
Pullet - Young female fowl
Capon - A castrated cock
Management of Domestic Fowl
The different breeds of domestic fowls include:



(a) Rhode Island Red (R.I.R)
(b) Phymouth Rock
(c) Harco
(d) White leghorn
(e) Brown leghorn
(f) Babcocks
(g) Ancina
(h) Cornish Dark
(i) Light Sussex
(j) White Wyandotte
(k) Native fowl, etc


Fowls can be managed for any of the purposed stated below:
(i) Egg production (Layers)
(ii) Meat production (broilers)
(iii) Dual purpose: In this case, the fowls are breed for both meat and eggs.
However, the management practices for all birds whether reared for meat or eggs have some similarities.
(a) Housing: The size of the house depends on the population of the birds. The foundation should be made of solid blocks with concrete floor. The wall should be made of solid blocks with concrete floor. The wall should be short for good ventilation and adequate supply of light. Wire mesh should be used to complete the short walls upwards to the roofing level.
Care should be taken in ensuring that all holes are covered upwards to the roof. This is to prevent lizards, snakes, rats and wild birds from entering into the house as their presence will disturb the fowls.
The commonest types of roofs used in poultry buildings are:
(i) Lean-to-Roof or Shed: This is illustrated below:






On completion of the building, a mini gutter (dip) should be constructed around the entire poultry building close to the outside walls. Izal or other disinfectants should be used with water and poured into this gilder regularly. This is to prevent and vermin from entering into the poultry house.

Furthermore, a wider clip should be constructed at the entrance of the house. The attendant as well as visitors are required to dip their legs in the disinfected water in the dip before entering into the poultry house. This is to prevent disease or germs from being taken into the house.
(b) Systems of poultry management
Fowls can be managed under any of the following systems:
1. Intensive Systems: Under this system, birds are reared continuously inside a building. There are three basic types of intensive management:
(i) Deep litter system
(ii) Battery Cage System
(iii) Slate or wire poor system.

(i) Deep litter system: In this system a concrete floor is made in the poultry house and saw dust or wood shavings are used to cover the flood. Feeding and drinking troughs are arranged at appropriate pistes on the floor. In case of laying birds, laying nests should be provided on one side of the floor.

Advantages of deep litter System
1. It is economical since minimum equipment are needed.
2. Production 01 ammonia from the decomposition of the litter assist in tin- control of coccidiosis.
3. The birds have enough space for exercise.
4. There is easy control of flies since it is fairly dry.
5. The litter helps to absorb the droppings from the birds thereby reducing the offensive odor.

Disadvantages
1. Cannibalism may occur
2. Diseases and parasites are easily spread
3. High cost of constructing the house
4. Eggs are usually dirty where layers are reared under this system

(ii) Battery System: In this intensive management system, wire, cages are used to enclose the birds in a house. each cage can accommodate two to four birds depending on the size of the cage.

Advantages
1. Provides better accommodation
2. Elimination of internal parasites because the droppings are collected below the cages
3. Sick birds are easily identified I or treatment
4. Egg production is higher
5. Records can easily he kept
6. Eims are usually very clean or neat.

Disadvantages
1. It is expensive to build the house and buy the cages.
2. The eggs may break if slope of mesh is too step.
3. There is high labour cost.

(iii) Slate or wire floor system: This is made raised walls. The birds are kept in the slated or wired floor. The droppings which collect beneath are collected for disposal occasionally.
Advantages
1. There is no litter required
2. There is control of infection because birds d droppings.
3. Ease cleaning is needed.

Disadvantages
1. Lower egg production
2. Layers are prone to nervousness
3. There may be cannibalism.

2. Extensive or Free Range System
This is the traditional system of poultry keeping in the tropics. In the system, the fowls are allowed to move neatly in a wide area. If high land is available, this system poses no problems. Birds reared under this system find food for themselves. They are normally provided accommodation at night.

Advantages of free range system:
1. The cost of feeding the birds is quite low.
2. There is no cost for housing the birds.
3. The birds can move about freely. They are therefore healthier because of their constant exercises.
4. The birds have access to natural food such as insects and vegetables

Disadvantages
1. There is danger of pests, hawks, snakes, wild animals and thieves.
2. There is risk of accident since vehicles can kill the birds.
3. There is low egg production.
4. The birds are normally small in size as they use their energy to move about in search of food and water.
5. They can easily contract disease from other birds.
6. Records are difficult to keep.

3. Semi-Intensive System
The birds under this system are kept in poultry runs made of wire netting. The birds move about within the runs during the day lend lor themselves. They come to sleep in the building at night or during adverse weather conditions such as excessive heat or rain. See the diagram below:



Run
Building
Wire fence Run


2.10.4: Semi-Intensive System of Rearing Birds.

Advantages of the system
1. There is enough space for the birds to move about.
2. The birds have access to green vegetables
3. The pasture growing in the area will do well because of the dropping from the birds
4. The birds are protected against predators such as snakes

Disadvantages
1. The cost of making wire fences is high.
2. Birds may not be totally protected from predators such as hawks
3. There is risk of parasite build up and disease out break.

(c) Management Practices: The management practices for poultry production can be treated under the follow ing headings:
(i) Egg Handling: Fertile eggs are collected from the breeding liens and sorted out. The defective ones are removed while the viable ones are taken to the incubator for hatching.
(ii) Incubation: This is a process involving the development and hatching of eggs, to give chicks. The mother hen usualh incubates her egg naturally by silting on the eggs. But the number of eggs hatched at once by a hen under this method is limited. As a result large hatching machines called incubators have been devised to hatch very large numbers of eggs.
All conditions inside the incubators are thcrmostalicalK controlled. The temperature is kept at 38V. Relative humidiu • 64%. Oxygen - 21%. Carbon (IV) Oxide - 0.5%. The eggs arc then turned . regularly in the incubator so that all sides arc exposed to the incubator conditions and to prevent chicks from sticking to the shells.
Candling is carried out to identity the infertile eggs. This IN done on the 6th and 18th day of the egg's stay in the incubator. Candling ensures that all hatchable egg are hatched.
The eggs are normally ready for hatching after 21 days stav in the incubator.
When the chicks have been hatched, they are sexed (Separation into males and females) before being taken to the brooder house,
(iii) Chick Brooding: This involves taking care ol the day-old chicks until jhcy are about four weeks after which the _management practices would change.

The brooder house is normally use used to rear day old chicks

Brooding is the process of prov iding the natural conditions ol the mother hen in artificial way.
Chick drinking and feeding troughs should be properly arrange* in the .brooder house. Sources of heat should be provided to up the room. Excess heat should be avoided. The thicks in the brooder house will tell the farmer whether the heat is too much or too low.
If the birds cluster together around the source of heat then the heat it too low. When most of the birds move far away from the it indicates that the temperature is too high. In either cases, the
Farmer should adjust the temperature as adequate.
Water and feed should be provided to the chicks in the brooder house adlibitum (that is, as much as they need).

At the end of four weeks, the birds should be removed from the the brooder house and reared under the necessary system earlier on in this unit. Whatever system is used to rear the birds, hygiene, adequate feed and water supply, disease and pest control should be given priority.


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Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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