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TILLAGE MECHINARIES, IMPLEMENTS AND THEIR USES

Tillage machinery




Tillage

is the working of soils or loosening of soils before seeds are planted. The purpose of soil tillage is to provide:
(a) Suitable seed-bed for seed germination and emergence,
(b) Easy water infiltration,
(c) Better soil aeration or air movement,
(d) Control of weeds,
(e) Erosion control,
(f) To work organic matter into the soil, and
(g) Adverse environment for soil inhabiting pathogens and pests.

There are two types of tillage machinery. These are:

(a)

Primary tillage machinery:

This refers to the tillage implements that are first used to open or loosen the soil w preparing it to receive seeds. This initial opening of the soil is called primary tillage. The primary tillage implement are the ploughs.
(b)

Ploughs:

The ploughs are primary tillage implements that used initially to break and turn the soil-over in the course preparing it for planting. Ploughs break soil into large clods lumps.

The ploughs are of three types. These are the moldboard plough, chisel plough, and the disc plough.

The mouldboard plough amongst other parts, has the caughter and share for cutting and mouldboard for inverting the soil. Most importantly,
The disc plough has discs or concave metal blades that cut into the and turn it over. The discs are mounted on frames called disc standards. The standards connect the discs to the beam or hols and cylindrical part of the plough. The disc plough can better and is more adapted to Nigerian soils than the mouldboard plough.

The ploughs are usually attached to be pulled by the tract Work animals such as bullocks can also be used to pull plough for land cultivation.

DIAGRAM
Figure 3.3.3: Typical Disc Plough
DIAGRAM
Figure 3.3.4: Animal Driven Mouldboard Plough.



(B)

Secondary tillage machinery:

This refers to tillage implements used to cultivate the soil after the ploughs have initially been used.

The purposes of secondary tillage include:


1. To break down the large solid clods obtained from primary tillage.
2. Kill weeds further
3. Incorporate manure or fertilizers into the soil, and
4. Produce suitable tilt or soil structure for seeds

The secondary tillage machinery includes the harrows, ridgers, cultivators, rotavators and rollers.


(i)

Harrows:

The harrows are secondary tillage implements used for breaking help to put the soil in good seed-bed condition for seed emergence. The use of harrows kills weeds not affected by the ploughs. The implement can also be used to cover seeds with soil after broadcast.
The harrows consist of disc, or tines that are fitted to a shaft. All the parts rotate as one unit. The implement is hitched or attached to the tractor during farm operation.
Different types of harrows are in existence. They include:
1. The disc harrow
2. Spike toothed harrow
3. Spring tine harrow and
4. Tandem disc harrow

(ii)

Ridgers:

The ridger is an implement that is used to turn the soil in one direction after ploughing to form ridges. Crops such as yam, cassava and potato can be sown thereafter.

There are two types of ridges. These are the disc ridger and mouldboard ridger.

The two ridgers work in the same way. However, the disc ridger 1 is better for use in Nigerian soils. This is because the soil contains obstacles such as stumps, roots and stones. At times the soils are sticky and disc ridger can effectively work in such conditions without frequent breakdown.
The disc ridger consists of opposed concave discs which actually make the ridges. The discs are fitted to mental frame called standard.This is bolted to a bigger frame called beam. The ridger is attached to the tractor during field operation. The mouldboard ridger has features common to the disc
ridger. It however has concave or convex blades used to turn the soil in order to form rid»es.


DIAGRAM
Figure 3.3.5: Disc Ridtier.

(iii)

Cultivator:

The cultivator is a secondary tillage implement. It is attached to the tractor during field operation. It consists of several tines used to stir the soil and breakdown soil clods. The cultivator is also used for weed combing, and dragging out stones and tree roots from the soil. The implement can be used for weeding and incorporating fertilizers into the soil after broadcast.
(iv)

Rotavator:

This is also a secondary tillage implement that has set of rotating blades. It breaks up soil clods and farm thrashes are chopped up in the process for easy decomposition.

4.

Other farm machinery

(a)

Seed drills:

These machines can be operated by tractor or by hand. They drop or plant seeds and in some cases, discharge fertilizer at the same time. Most seed drills plant crops in row. They are set up to plant seeds at appropriate rate and distance. Crops such as maize, rice, wheat, barley, rye. oat and beans can br planted using the drills.


DIAGRAM

Figure 3.3.6: Seed Drill (Hand Operated).

(b)

Planters:

These are machines designed to plant seeds. Some of them are built to plant one type of seed. Others can plant more than one type of crop. This is achieved by changing the plates.
The planter built to plant seeds in rows with enough distance between the stands is referred to as row planter. Some plant are able to plant seeds and distribute fertilizer at the same time
The planters can be mounted on a tractor or trailed.
(c)

Lathes:

The lathe is a machine that is used for holding and turning wood or metal into different shapes. Today, there many different lathes used for all types of shaping of mi materials.

The kinds of lathes developed from the centre lathe capstan lathes, turrel lathes, cropping lathes, automatic lat|j and special purpose- lathes. In the school workshop, la operations are turning, facing, drilling, boring, parting, knurl! and sometimes screw cutting.

(d)

Motor-saw or powered chain-saw:

This is a machine consists of a small petrol engine, steel blade and chain round the blade. The chain rotates during operation and is the cut edge of the machine. The motor-saw has two handles for ei handling and positioning during use. The machine is becoming popular among small-scale farmers because:
(i) It is used in cutting down (felling) trees during farming preparation.
(ii)It is used in felling and cutting timber trees into logs.
(iii)it Also used to split logs into planks.
(iv) It is used in trimming the big branches of trees.

(e)

Harvesters:

These are machines designed for the harvesting of ripe and mature crops from the field.

Common harvest machines are:


(i) Combine harvester,
(ii) Forage harvesters.
(iii)Corn pickers
(iv) Balers,
(v) Cotton scrippers-. and
(vi) Field mowers.


The combine harvester is commonly used in commercial farms for the harvesting of cereals such as rice, maize, wheat, barley As the name suggests, the combine cuts the standing crops, separates the seeds from the chaff, and collects the grains tank while tank while the crop residues are thrown Held. These activities are completed in one operation.

The forage harvesters are machines used in cutting forage crops (grasses vand legumes) for making silage to be kept for feeding animals during the dry season.

The field mowers (weeders) are machines used to cut grasses for hay making. They are also used for clearing farms lawns and parks. Most field mowers are designed in rows. Examples are the blade mower and the drum mower

(f)

Sprayer:

This is a machine consisting of tank where chemical is stored pump, spray booms and nozzles.

The sprayer is used for:


1. Applying herbicides, insecticides and fungicides.
2. Watering crops
3. Applying liquid fertilizers.
4. Applying hormones to increase fruit yield or prevent dropping of fruits.

There are three types of sprayer. These are:


1.

The simple knapsack sprayer:

This can take between nine and twenty-three litres of solution. It is usually mounted and iped to the back of the operator during field operation.
2.

The tractor mounted sprayer:

This is attached to the tractor during field operation. The sprayer is operated by the power take-off or P.T.O.
3.

The knapsack engine operated:

This type is made of plastic tank for the liquid chemical and uses petrol as Its source power. As in the simple knapsack, the operator i the spray boom to the crops or objects to be sprayed.

Spraying with chemicals should not be done during bad weather. The chemicals left after spraying exercise must not be poured in places where they can contaminate vegetables, and drinking water

Protective covers should be used by the operator during field operation. Sprayers should be washed, cleaned after use, and a safe place until when needed.


DIAGRAM
Figure 3.3.7: Knapsack Sprayer.

5.

Accessory Tools

These are tools which are useful for the effective utilization of farm machines. They include:

(a)

Pliers:

This tool is like a pair of scissors. It is made with two handles having plastic coverings. The pliers holding things such as wires during electrical
(b)

Screw drivers:

These are made of round rods which are beaten flat at the tips. The handles are either made of wooden materials. The screw driver is used for tightening and re-tightening of screws, it is also used for loosening screw. There is also the star-screw driver with multiple or star-like grooves.
(c)

Nuts and bolts:

Nuts are small pieces of metal num screwed onto the end of a bolt. On the other hand, bolts are metal pins with heads. Nuts and bolts are together used for holding parts of machines together or in place.




(d)

Spanners:

The spanners are made of metal. Some have the two ends split into two teeth for holding nuts and bolts. the spanner is essentially used for:
( i) tightening and re-tightening of nuts and bolts: and
(ii) loosening nuts and bolts.

(e)

Hammers:

The hammer consists of a thick small metal head and a wooden or metal handle. It is used for knocking in nailing and also to beat metals into flat shapes.

(f)

Alien key:

This is a tool that is used in tightening, re tightening and loosening deep seated nuts or nuts that cannot be reached with the ordinary spanner or screw driver.

(g)

Oil applicator or can:

This contains oil which is applied to engine parts with the help of its pointed tip.

(h)

Grease gun:

This instrument is used to apply grease into engine parts. It consists of the tank and a long pipe with which the "tease is pumped into inner parts of engines.

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Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. (a) Brifely explain the meaning of farm mechanization
(b) Mention five advantages and disadvantages of farm mechanization in Ngiera.

2. Disciss five probems that may hinder farm mechanization in Nigeria.
3. (a) List the sources of farm power
(b) Mention one use for each of the farm power listed.
4. Mention the uses of the following farm machines:
(a) Tractor (d) Cultivator
(b) Bulldozer (e) Lathes
(c) Ridger (f) Motor-saw
5. (a) Explain the term tillage machinery
(b) List two primary and two secondary tillage machinery.


6.

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