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TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES, ROUGHAGES AND MALNUTRITION



TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES

before i delve into this topic properly, lets see what https://www.britannica.com/topic/feed-agriculture taught about feeds and i quote "Feed, also called animal feed, food grown or developed for livestock and poultry. you can some of the links on this page for more insight on this very topic. Modern feeds are produced by carefully selecting and blending ingredients to provide highly nutritional diets that both maintain the health of the animals and increase the quality of such end products as meat, milk, or eggs, so you can read here, detailed balanced diet article . Ongoing improvements in animal diets have resulted from research, experimentation, and chemical analysis by agricultural scientists.





Animals in general require the same nutrients as humans.

Some feeds, such as pasture grasses, hay and silage crops, and certain cereal grains, are grown specifically for animals. Other feeds, such as sugar beet pulp, brewers’ grains, and pineapple bran, are by-products that remain after a food crop has been processed for human use. Surplus food crops, such as wheat, other cereals, fruits, vegetables, and roots, may also be fed to animals.

History does not record when dried roughage or other stored feeds were first given to animals. Most early records refer to nomadic peoples who, with their herds and flocks, followed the natural feed supplies. When animals were domesticated and used for work in crop production, some of the residues were doubtless fed to them".
so below you will find my total analysis of feeds, roughages,vitamins, fodders and concentrates








Types of Feeds

Generally feeds may be classified into:
(a) Concentrates
(b) Succulents
(c) Roughages
(d) Supplements and additives.

1.

Concentrates

These are made up of:
1. Cereals such as maize,rice, millet, sorghum, etc. These are also referred to as basal feeds or energy concentrates.
2. Leguminous seeds such as groundnut cake, soya beans cake, and others such as palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake. These are plant protein concentrate 3. Fish meal and blood meal. These are animal protein concentrates.

Concentrates are easily digested by farm animals.

Succulent Feeds

These consist of:
1. Roots and tubers such as yam cassava, coco-yam, etc
2. Vegetables such as water leaf and shoko
3. forages such as pasture grasses
4. silage made from green fresh grass
5. Cane molasses mainly from sugar cane

Succulent feeds are very high in water and are easily digested by the animals. Most green crops can be used as succulent feeds when they are young.

3.

Roughages

These consist of dry grasses which usually add bulk to animal feeds. Examples are Hay, Straw.
Hay: This is grass cut. dried and preserved for animals future use.
Roughage, also known as fiber food, is an indigestible compound that your body can't absorb. It is found in many fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes. A high-fiber diet has many advantages, including bowel regularity and decreased risk of developing constipation, high blood pressure and diabetes.


One of the main benefits of eating roughage is that it helps to regulate your digestion. Insoluble fiber provides bulk in your intestines and helps to keep food moving through the digestive tract.
Insoluble fiber absorbs water and swells into a gel that helps to keep bowel movements soft and easy to pass through elementary canal. These attributes of fiber give it the ability to help relieve and prevent both constipation and diarrhea.
Like seriously, always make sure to drink plenty of water when increasing your fiber intake to avoid the fiber becoming hard and dry in your digestive tract.


4.

Supplements and Additives

Feed supplements are added to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients which might be lacking in the main feed. The following could serve as feed supplements:

1. Cotton seed cake
2. Soya bean meal
3. Groundnut cake
4. Fish meal
5. Bone meal
6. Egg shell meal
7. Oyster shell meal
8. Salt-licks
9. Limestone
10. Vitamins. read here for deficiency symptoms of vitamins


The feed additives include:

1. Antibiotics
2. Amino acids
3. Hormones and so on.
These help to stabilize the feeds as well as improve on the quality and storability of the feeds.





9.2

Feed Nutrients

Many elements in varying combinations make up feed nutrients. These elements include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, Florine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and caromium.

Based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal feeds can be classified into six groups, viz:
1.

Carbohydrate

Supplying energy, e.g cereals, roots and tubers, etc
2.

Proteins

Needed for growth and repair of worn out tissues, e.g legumes such as soya bean, cotton seed, groundnut cakes, etc
3.

Fats

Supplying energy and keeping the body temperature under control e.g. milk, coconuts, tubers, etc.
4. Minerals
They helo to carry out vital body function. Examples are: calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so on.

5.

Vitamins

They help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins A, B,C,D, E and K
6.

Water

This is a constituent of body fluid. It helps to regular body temperature, lubricate joints, read transport body materials and breakdown (digestions) of food.
For farmers, the inclusion of the proper vitamins are not just a production issue.
Along with decreased production, the deficiency of necessary vitamins can also lead to abnormal growth in animals, which decrease the animal’s productivity and life span, as well as its appeal to consumers.
As animal welfare becomes a more important issue with animal protein buyers, the inclusion of necessary vitamin supplements in animal feed should be more important for farmers looking to maximize their animal production.

9.3

Types of Ration

Rations are classified according to the purpose they serve in the animals body. They include in:
1.

Maintenance Ration

This is the food given to animals to keep their live - weight constant. The ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to carry on its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood circulation treatment and sleeping ration.
2.

Balanced Ration

Ration supplied over and above that needed for maintenance purposes. The ration is specially formulated to of the following purposes: reproduction, work, fattening and so on. Example is layers mash in poultry.
3.

Balanced Ration

This is the ration that contains all the essential nutrients needed by the body in the correct proportion. The composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins well as water.
1. Ration
A ration is the quantity and quality of feed given to a farm animal. A balanced ration-diet contains all the essential nutrients (carbohydrates, protein, fats, minerals and vitamins) in the correct proportions and quantities necessary for growth and development. There are two types of rations given to farm animals. These are as follows

1. Maintenance ration.
This is the best amount of feed an animal needs to allow it to maintain its body mass and composition which is very necessary for body repairs, without any weight loss or gain. It does not provide enough energy or nutrients for the animal to do work.
2. Production ration.
This is the extra amount of feed an animal needs above the maintenance ration so that the animal can do work and produce products such as milk, meat, eggs, hides, skins and offspring.


Malnutrition:

Malnutrition results when a ration does not provide all the essential food nutrients in the correct proportion. That is both in quality and quantity. This could result if the food In the animal is very low in calorific value and as a result only little energy is supplied. This condition is called marasmus.
Alternatively the foot may be very rich in one nutrients such as carbohydrate and and poor in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.



Malnutrition, as in improper feeding, results in nutrients deficiency diseases such as rickets (poor formation of limbs) and ketosis (low level of blood glucose). Malnutrition may lead to:
(i) retarded growth in the a
(ii) low production
(iii) physical deformities
(iv) ill-health
(v) death.
ROUGHAGES

Forage

Forage is plant crops that is generally grown in a particular area or field with the intention of having it grazed by various livestock.
The crop plants usually grown for this purpose are of legumes, grasses, corn, oats, elephant grass, millet, and other edible plants. The act of eating or grazing upon the plant matter is known as foraging.

Fodder

Fodder, another type of animal feed, which is used primarily to feed domesticated livestock such as goats, sheep, cattle, horses and pigs. It is mainly comprised of plant matter like hay, straw and grains. The term fodder is used to describe these plants that is given to the animals after the plants have been harvested, which definitely opposite of forage, as I explained up there
Meat and bone meals are occasionally mixed into fodder, which has been frequently blamed for the spread of mad cow disease and has been banned in many countries as suggested by a lots of researchers

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41.

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL, CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE
APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION



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