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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES, ROUGHAGES AND MALNUTRITION



TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES

before i delve into this topic properly, lets see what https://www.britannica.com/topic/feed-agriculture taught about feeds and i quote "Feed, also called animal feed, food grown or developed for livestock and poultry.TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES you can some of the links on this page for more insight on this very topic. Modern feeds are produced by carefully selecting and blending ingredients to provide highly nutritional diets that both maintain the health of the animals and increase the quality of such end products as meat, milk, or eggs, so you can read here, detailed balanced diet article . Ongoing improvements in animal diets have resulted from research, experimentation, and chemical analysis by agricultural scientists.



Animals in general require the same nutrients as humans.

Some feeds, such as pasture grasses, hay and silage crops, and certain cereal grains, are grown specifically for animals. Other feeds, such as sugar beet pulp, brewers’ grains, and pineapple bran, are by-products that remain after a food crop has been processed for human use. Surplus food crops, such as wheat, other cereals, fruits, vegetables, and roots, may also be fed to animals.









TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES
History does not record when dried roughage or other stored feeds were first given to animals. Most early records refer to nomadic peoples who, with their herds and flocks, followed the natural feed supplies. When animals were domesticated and used for work in crop production, some of the residues were doubtless fed to them".
so below you will find my total analysis of feeds, roughages,vitamins, fodders and concentrates
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38. TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE







49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM








106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES

Types of Feeds

Generally feeds may be classified into:
(a) Concentrates
(b) Succulents
(c) Roughages
(d) Supplements and additives.


TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES
1.

Concentrates

These are made up of:
1. Cereals such as maize,rice, millet, sorghum, etc. These are also referred to as basal feeds or energy concentrates.
2. Leguminous seeds such as groundnut cake, soya beans cake, and others such as palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake. These are plant protein concentrate 3. Fish meal and blood meal. These are animal protein concentrates.

Concentrates are easily digested by farm animals.

Succulent Feeds

These consist of:
1. Roots and tubers such as yam cassava, coco-yam, etc
2. Vegetables such as water leaf and shoko
3. forages such as pasture grasses
4. silage made from green fresh grass
5. Cane molasses mainly from sugar cane

Succulent feeds are very high in water and are easily digested by the animals. Most green crops can be used as succulent feeds when they are young.

TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES
3.

Roughages

These consist of dry grasses which usually add bulk to animal feeds. Examples are Hay, Straw.
Hay: This is grass cut. dried and preserved for animals future use.
Roughage, also known as fiber food, is an indigestible compound that your body can't absorb. It is found in many fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes. A high-fiber diet has many advantages, including bowel regularity and decreased risk of developing constipation, high blood pressure and diabetes.


TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES
One of the main benefits of eating roughage is that it helps to regulate your digestion. Insoluble fiber provides bulk in your intestines and helps to keep food moving through the digestive tract.
Insoluble fiber absorbs water and swells into a gel that helps to keep bowel movements soft and easy to pass through elementary canal. These attributes of fiber give it the ability to help relieve and prevent both constipation and diarrhea.
Like seriously, always make sure to drink plenty of water when increasing your fiber intake to avoid the fiber becoming hard and dry in your digestive tract.

TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES
4.

Supplements and Additives

Feed supplements are added to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients which might be lacking in the main feed. The following could serve as feed supplements:

1. Cotton seed cake
2. Soya bean meal
3. Groundnut cake
4. Fish meal
5. Bone meal
6. Egg shell meal
7. Oyster shell meal
8. Salt-licks
9. Limestone
10. Vitamins. read here for deficiency symptoms of vitamins

TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES

The feed additives include:

1. Antibiotics
2. Amino acids
3. Hormones and so on.
These help to stabilize the feeds as well as improve on the quality and storability of the feeds.


TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES

Feed Nutrients

Many elements in varying combinations make up feed nutrients. These elements include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, Florine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and caromium.


TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES
Based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal feeds can be classified into six groups, viz:
1.
Carbohydrate
Supplying energy, e.g cereals, roots and tubers, etc
2.
Proteins
Needed for growth and repair of worn out tissues, e.g legumes such as soya bean, cotton seed, groundnut cakes, etc
3.
Fats
Supplying energy and keeping the body temperature under control e.g. milk, coconuts, tubers, etc.
4. Minerals
They helo to carry out vital body function. Examples are: calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so on.

5.
Vitamins
They help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins A, B,C,D, E and K
6.
Water
This is a constituent of body fluid. It helps to regular body temperature, lubricate joints, read transport body materials and breakdown (digestions) of food.
For farmers, the inclusion of the proper vitamins are not just a production issue.
Along with decreased production, the deficiency of necessary vitamins can also lead to abnormal growth in animals, which decrease the animal’s productivity and life span, as well as its appeal to consumers.
As animal welfare becomes a more important issue with animal protein buyers, the inclusion of necessary vitamin supplements in animal feed should be more important for farmers looking to maximize their animal production.


TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES

Types of Ration

Rations are classified according to the purpose they serve in the animals body. They include in:
1.
Maintenance Ration
This is the food given to animals to keep their live - weight constant. The ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to carry on its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood circulation treatment and sleeping ration.









TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES
2.

Balanced Ration

Ration supplied over and above that needed for maintenance purposes. The ration is specially formulated to of the following purposes: reproduction, work, fattening and so on. Example is layers mash in poultry.


TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES
Balanced Ration
This is the ration that contains all the essential nutrients needed by the body in the correct proportion. The composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins well as water.
1. Ration
A ration is the quantity and quality of feed given to a farm animal. A balanced ration-diet contains all the essential nutrients (carbohydrates, protein, fats, minerals and vitamins) in the correct proportions and quantities necessary for growth and development. There are two types of rations given to farm animals. These are as follows

1. Maintenance ration.
This is the best amount of feed an animal needs to allow it to maintain its body mass and composition which is very necessary for body repairs, without any weight loss or gain. It does not provide enough energy or nutrients for the animal to do work.
2. Production ration.
This is the extra amount of feed an animal needs above the maintenance ration so that the animal can do work and produce products such as milk, meat, eggs, hides, skins and offspring.

TYPES OF FEEDS, CONCENTRATES AND ROUGHAGES

Malnutrition:

Malnutrition results when a ration does not provide all the essential food nutrients in the correct proportion. That is both in quality and quantity. This could result if the food In the animal is very low in calorific value and as a result only little energy is supplied. This condition is called marasmus.
Alternatively the foot may be very rich in one nutrients such as carbohydrate and and poor in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.


Malnutrition, as in improper feeding, results in nutrients deficiency diseases such as rickets (poor formation of limbs) and ketosis (low level of blood glucose). Malnutrition may lead to:
(i) retarded growth in the a
(ii) low production
(iii) physical deformities
(iv) ill-health
(v) death.



ROUGHAGES

Forage

Forage is plant crops that is generally grown in a particular area or field with the intention of having it grazed by various livestock.
The crop plants usually grown for this purpose are of legumes, grasses, corn, oats, elephant grass, millet, and other edible plants. The act of eating or grazing upon the plant matter is known as foraging.

Fodder

Fodder, another type of animal feed, which is used primarily to feed domesticated livestock such as goats, sheep, cattle, horses and pigs. It is mainly comprised of plant matter like hay, straw and grains. The term fodder is used to describe these plants that is given to the animals after the plants have been harvested, which definitely opposite of forage, as I explained up there
Meat and bone meals are occasionally mixed into fodder, which has been frequently blamed for the spread of mad cow disease and has been banned in many countries as suggested by a lots of researchers


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