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AGENTS OF WEED DISPERSAL



WHAT IS WEED DISPERSAL?

Weed dispersal is simply the transporting of weeds from one place to another through several means and agents.

Dispersal of weeds







Weeds are mainly dispersed by gutter, animals, explosion and man.
the following agents:
wind.
1.

Mechanical method of weed dispersal

People spread many weeds around through their machines.
For example,
Motor vehicles such as (automobiles and trucks) raise gusts of wind as they travel up and down highways.
As a result, small small seeds or seeds with tufts of hair are easily carried by the wind and blown along the motor paths and highways with each passing motor vehicle.
In this way, many weeds are distributed along roadsides. Similarly, heavy-duty vehicles and their freight cars generate even stronger gusts of winds as they travel up and down railroad tracks.
As a result, weeds having tiny seeds or seeds with tufts of hair are distributed up and down railroads. For example, Dwarf Snapdragon





2.

WIND DISPERSAL OF WEEDS

The structures of some weed seeds enable their distribution by wind. Such features as being winged, having parachute make them easily carried about by wind. Examples of weeds dispersed by wind and Tridax procumbens and Ageratum conyzoides (Goat Weed). Agrostemma
Nemophila
Dianthus
Poppy
Columbine
Thistle
Felicia
Bulrush
Bulrush

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3.

WATER DISPERSAL OF SEEDS

Weed seeds can be carried by moving water such as surface run-oft, streams, irrigation and drainage water. They have adaptation lenluus (hat enable movement by water such as membranous sacs containing air of corky protuberances. These make the seeds buoyant on water so that they can float. They can also stay in water for a period without losing viability. Example of weed dispersed by water is pig weed.

.4

ANIMAL DISPERSAL OF WEEDS

Animals also help in weed dispersal. For instance, weeds that have hooks can be distributed by animals with hairy body because such weeds can attach themselves to the hair of the animals. Example of weeds dispersed by animals is Erogratis tenella. Also seeds of some weeds pass through the digestive tracts of animals, particularly birds without loosing viability. On defecation, these seeds can germinate into new plants.

5.

MAN AS AN AGENT OF WEED DISPERSAL

Man can transport weed seeds over long distances as a result of movements of agricultural seeds, foodstuff, nursery stock and others. Some weeds or their seeds could cling to the wears of the farmers and these are deposited elsewhere. Good examples are Boerhevia diffusa (Pig weed) and Acathespermum hispidium.
Man Disperses Numerous Weed Seeds And Fruits With Raw Agricultural Produce. Weeds Mature At The Same Time And Height Along With Crop. Due To Their Similar Size And Shape As That Of Crop Seed, Man Unknowingly Harvest The Weeds Also, And Aids In Dispersal Of Weed Seeds.

Such Weeds Are Called “Satellite Weeds







6.

Self Explosion or Explosive Mechanism

This is brought about by the forces set up in dry walls of weeds fruits which cause explosion. This scatters the seeds in the fruits away from the parents plants. Such weeds are said to be self dispersed. Examples are Sida acuta and Desmodium.


MANY WEEDS HAVE SEEDS OR SEEDPODS THAT CLING TO THE FUR OR BODY OF ANIMALS AND THE CLOTHING OF HUMANS AS A RESULT OF STICKY HAIRS, HOOKED SPINES, OR BARBED AWNS.

EXAMPLES OF WEEDS USING THIS METHOD OF DISPERSION INCLUDE

LAPPA MINOR (LESSER BURDOCK),
TORILIS ARVENSIS (COMMON HEDGE PARSLEY),
AND BIDENS FRONDOSA (COMMON BEGGAR'S TICKS).

SEVERAL OTHER WEEDS HAVE SEEDS THAT BECOME STICKY WHILE WET,

THESE ENABLES THEM TO CLING TO THE BOTTOM OF HOOVES, WEBBED FEET, OR SHOES.
TYPES OF WEEDS USING THIS METHOD OF SEED DISPERSAL INCLUDE PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA (ENGLISH PLANTAIN) AND SEVERAL CHAMAESYCE SPP. (PROSTRATE SPURGES).





weed Dispersal by machinery

Weed seeds often are dispersed by tillage and harvesting equipment.
Seeds move from field to field on the soil that sticks to tractor tires, and vegetative structures often travel on tillage and cultivation equipment and latter dropping them in other fields to start new infestation. Disc-type cultivation equipment is less likely to drag vegetative plant parts than are shovels or sweeps.


Some common garden weeds,Common names and Botanical names

1 Guinea grass Panicumm maximum
2 Elephant grass Pennisetum purpureun
3 Tridax Tridax prociimbem
4 Carpet grass Axonopus compressus
5 Goose grass or Africana Cynodon dactylon
6 Siam weed Eluesine indica
7 African or bush marigold Chromoleana odorata
8 Pig weed Aspilia Africana
9 Goat weed or blue top Boerhavia diffusa
10 Water leaf Ageratum conyzoides







11 Soft weed Talinum triagulare
12 Wild green Erogratis tenella
13 Tropical kudzu Amaranthus spinosus
14 Centro Calapogonium mucunoides
15 Blue flower or water grass Centrosema pubescens
16 Spear grass Commelina spp
17 Striga Imperata cylindrical
18 Wild potato or moring glory Striga senegalensis
19 Broom weed Ipomea spp
20 Emilia Sida acuta
21 Giant star grass Emilia sonchifolia
22 Stubborn grass Cynodon nlemfuensis
23 Sensitive plant Sporobolus pyramidalis
24 Bur weed Mimosa pudica
25 Acanthospermum hisidum

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