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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

AGENTS OF WEED DISPERSAL



WHAT IS WEED DISPERSAL?

Weed dispersal is simply the transporting of weeds from one place to another through several means and agents.

Dispersal of weeds


Weeds are mainly dispersed by gutter, animals, explosion and man.
the following agents:
wind.
1.

Mechanical method of weed dispersal

People spread many weeds around through their machines.
For example,
Motor vehicles such as (automobiles and trucks) raise gusts of wind as they travel up and down highways.
As a result, small small seeds or seeds with tufts of hair are easily carried by the wind and blown along the motor paths and highways with each passing motor vehicle.
In this way, many weeds are distributed along roadsides. Similarly, heavy-duty vehicles and their freight cars generate even stronger gusts of winds as they travel up and down railroad tracks.
As a result, weeds having tiny seeds or seeds with tufts of hair are distributed up and down railroads. For example, Dwarf Snapdragon








2.

WIND DISPERSAL OF WEEDS

The structures of some weed seeds enable their distribution by wind. Such features as being winged, having parachute make them easily carried about by wind. Examples of weeds dispersed by wind and Tridax procumbens and Ageratum conyzoides (Goat Weed). Agrostemma
Nemophila
Dianthus
Poppy
Columbine
Thistle
Felicia
Bulrush
Bulrush

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.






39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON


90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES

147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE


3.

WATER DISPERSAL OF SEEDS

Weed seeds can be carried by moving water such as surface run-oft, streams, irrigation and drainage water. They have adaptation lenluus (hat enable movement by water such as membranous sacs containing air of corky protuberances. These make the seeds buoyant on water so that they can float. They can also stay in water for a period without losing viability. Example of weed dispersed by water is pig weed.

.4

ANIMAL DISPERSAL OF WEEDS

Animals also help in weed dispersal. For instance, weeds that have hooks can be distributed by animals with hairy body because such weeds can attach themselves to the hair of the animals. Example of weeds dispersed by animals is Erogratis tenella. Also seeds of some weeds pass through the digestive tracts of animals, particularly birds without loosing viability. On defecation, these seeds can germinate into new plants.









5.

MAN AS AN AGENT OF WEED DISPERSAL

Man can transport weed seeds over long distances as a result of movements of agricultural seeds, foodstuff, nursery stock and others. Some weeds or their seeds could cling to the wears of the farmers and these are deposited elsewhere. Good examples are Boerhevia diffusa (Pig weed) and Acathespermum hispidium.
Man Disperses Numerous Weed Seeds And Fruits With Raw Agricultural Produce. Weeds Mature At The Same Time And Height Along With Crop. Due To Their Similar Size And Shape As That Of Crop Seed, Man Unknowingly Harvest The Weeds Also, And Aids In Dispersal Of Weed Seeds.

Such Weeds Are Called “Satellite Weeds


6.

Self Explosion or Explosive Mechanism

This is brought about by the forces set up in dry walls of weeds fruits which cause explosion. This scatters the seeds in the fruits away from the parents plants. Such weeds are said to be self dispersed. Examples are Sida acuta and Desmodium.


MANY WEEDS HAVE SEEDS OR SEEDPODS THAT CLING TO THE FUR OR BODY OF ANIMALS AND THE CLOTHING OF HUMANS AS A RESULT OF STICKY HAIRS, HOOKED SPINES, OR BARBED AWNS.

EXAMPLES OF WEEDS USING THIS METHOD OF DISPERSION INCLUDE

LAPPA MINOR (LESSER BURDOCK),
TORILIS ARVENSIS (COMMON HEDGE PARSLEY),
AND BIDENS FRONDOSA (COMMON BEGGAR'S TICKS).

SEVERAL OTHER WEEDS HAVE SEEDS THAT BECOME STICKY WHILE WET,

THESE ENABLES THEM TO CLING TO THE BOTTOM OF HOOVES, WEBBED FEET, OR SHOES.
TYPES OF WEEDS USING THIS METHOD OF SEED DISPERSAL INCLUDE PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA (ENGLISH PLANTAIN) AND SEVERAL CHAMAESYCE SPP. (PROSTRATE SPURGES).

weed Dispersal by machinery

Weed seeds often are dispersed by tillage and harvesting equipment.
Seeds move from field to field on the soil that sticks to tractor tires, and vegetative structures often travel on tillage and cultivation equipment and latter dropping them in other fields to start new infestation. Disc-type cultivation equipment is less likely to drag vegetative plant parts than are shovels or sweeps.


Some common garden weeds,Common names and Botanical names

1 Guinea grass Panicumm maximum
2 Elephant grass Pennisetum purpureun
3 Tridax Tridax prociimbem
4 Carpet grass Axonopus compressus
5 Goose grass or Africana Cynodon dactylon
6 Siam weed Eluesine indica
7 African or bush marigold Chromoleana odorata
8 Pig weed Aspilia Africana
9 Goat weed or blue top Boerhavia diffusa
10 Water leaf Ageratum conyzoides



11 Soft weed Talinum triagulare
12 Wild green Erogratis tenella
13 Tropical kudzu Amaranthus spinosus
14 Centro Calapogonium mucunoides
15 Blue flower or water grass Centrosema pubescens
16 Spear grass Commelina spp
17 Striga Imperata cylindrical
18 Wild potato or moring glory Striga senegalensis
19 Broom weed Ipomea spp
20 Emilia Sida acuta
21 Giant star grass Emilia sonchifolia
22 Stubborn grass Cynodon nlemfuensis
23 Sensitive plant Sporobolus pyramidalis
24 Bur weed Mimosa pudica
25 Acanthospermum hisidum

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