WHAT IS SYMBIOTIC NUTRITION?


SYMBIOTIC NUTRITION

What is symbiotic nutrition?
Symbiotic nutrition is a type of nutrition in which two organisms of different species called SYMBIONTS live together and derive nutrients or food from each other.
In symbiotic nutrition, both organisms gain from such association and none is harmed. This type of nutrition called symbiotic nutrition while the association between the two organisms in which both derive benefits is called SYMBIOSIS

Apart from the nutritional benefits, the symbionts can derive other benefits like protection, reproduction shelter during such association.

Examples of organisms that exhibits symbiotic nutrition are
1. Nitrogen fixation bacteria and root nodules of leguminous plants
2. Algae and Fungi in a lichen
3. Sea anemones and hermit crabs
4. Termites and protozoa living together in the gut







1.

NITROGEN FIXATION BACTERIA AND ROOT NODULES OF LEGUMINOUS PLANTS

a typical example of symbiotic nutrition and association is the one between nitrogen fixing bacteria, Rhizobium spp and the root nodules of leguminous plants.
The bacteria is able to fix atmospheric nitrogen directly into the plant while the plant provide shelter and food for the bacteria.


ALGAE AND FUNGI IN LICHEN

a LICHEN is usually made up of two organisms, a fungus and a unicellular Alga, living closely together and this an example of symbiotic nutrition. The thallus or plant body of a lichen consists mostly of fungal hyphae, with alga cells embedded in them. The alga cells are arranged in a definite layer. The green alga manufactures food for both plants, while the fungus protects the alga and absorbs water from the surroundings thereby making the symbiotic nutrition process complete.

2.
3.

SEA ANEMONES AND CRABS

in this type of symbiotic nutrition, the sea anemone is known to attach itself to the empty shell in which the hermit crab is found. Pieces of food left by the hermit crab is what the sea anemone eats. The hermit is protected from predators that would have attacked or eaten it as the sting of the sea anemone keep them away from the hermit crab
4. TERMITES AND PROTOZOA LIVING TOGETHER IN THE GUT:

SYMBIOTIC NUTRITION


What is symbiotic nutrition?
Symbiotic nutrition is a type of nutrition in which two organisms of different species called SYMBIONTS live together and derive nutrients or food from each other.
In symbiotic nutrition, both organisms gain from such association and none is harmed. This type of nutrition called symbiotic nutrition while the association between the two organisms in which both derive benefits is called SYMBIOSIS


Apart from the nutritional benefits, the symbionts can derive other benefits like protection, reproduction shelter during such association.

Examples of organisms that exhibits symbiotic nutrition are
1. Nitrogen fixation bacteria and root nodules of leguminous plants
2. Algae and Fungi in a lichen
3. Sea anemones and hermit crabs
4. Termites and protozoa living together in the gut


1. NITROGEN FIXATION BACTERIA AND ROOT NODULES OF LEGUMINOUS PLANTS: a typical example of symbiotic nutrition and association is the one between nitrogen fixing bacteria, Rhizobium spp and the root nodules of leguminous plants.
The bacteria is able to fix atmospheric nitrogen directly into the plant while the plant provide shelter and food for the bacteria.


ALGAE AND FUNGI IN LICHEN: a LICHEN is usually made up of two organisms, a fungus and a unicellular Alga, living closely together and this an example of symbiotic nutrition. The thallus or plant body of a lichen consists mostly of fungal hyphae, with alga cells embedded in them. The alga cells are arranged in a definite layer. The green alga manufactures food for both plants, while the fungus protects the alga and absorbs water from the surroundings thereby making the symbiotic nutrition process complete.







2.
3. SEA ANEMONES AND CRABS: in this type of symbiotic nutrition, the sea anemone is known to attach itself to the empty shell in which the hermit crab is found. Pieces of food left by the hermit crab is what the sea anemone eats. The hermit is protected from predators that would have attacked or eaten it as the sting of the sea anemone keep them away from the hermit crab
4. TERMITES AND PROTOZOA LIVING TOGETHER IN THE GUT:

The following are related link and posts to this topic

Please share if you find our article good
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150.
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155.
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE










HOW TO TEST FOR FOOD SUBSTANCES


HOW TO TEST FOR FOOD SUBSTANCES
The chart below represents the tests for various classes of food substances such as starch, protein, simple sugars, reducing sugars, fats and oil and water.
1. HOW TO TEST FOR PROTEINS IN FOOD
(a) The Biuret’s test.
Process
i. Take a small quantity of milk or egg white solution
ii. Add 1cm of protein and sodium hydroxide and 1% copper (11) solution in drops
iii. Shake the mixture after each drop.
iv. Do not heat

OBSERVATION
The mixture will turn purple or violet colour.
INFERENCE
Protein is present
(b) Millon’s test
i. Put 3cm of protein food inside a test tube, e.g. fresh egg white
ii. Add 3cm of Millon’s reagent
iii. Warm the mixture in a water bath for few minutes

OBSERVATION
A red precipitate would appear

INFERENCE

Protein is present






(c) XANTHOPROTEIC TEST

i. Put 2cm of egg white or milk solution in a test tube
ii. Add about 1cm of concentrated trioxonitrate (v) acid and 3cm of ammonium hydroxide solution
iii. Heat the solution
iv. Allow it to cool down

OBSERVATION

A white precipitate forms, which turns yellow on heating. On cooling the content after adding excess NH4OH, the solution becomes orange in colour

INFERENCE
Protein is present

2. FOOD TEST FOR STARCH

I. collect any starch material like bread or yam
II. Add a few drops of dilute Iodine solution

OBSERVATION
I. The colour will change to blue-black
INFERENCE
Starch is present


3. FOOD TEST FOR SIMPLE SUGARS e.g. glucose and fructose

i. Put a small quantity of glucose solution in a test tube
ii. Add 2% Benedict solution
iii. Boil the mixture for 4-6 minutes

OBSERVATION

A brick-red or orange precipitate is seen

INFERENCE
Glucose is present











4. FOOD TEST FOR REDUCING SUGARS e.g. sucrose, lactose or maltose

i. Put a small quantity of sucrose solution in a test tube
ii. Add a few drops of Benedict’s solution or Fehling solution
iii. Add a few drops of Hel:
iv. Boil the mixture for a few minutes
Dilute Hcl and boiling will help to hydrolyze the sucrose to simple sugars e.g. glucose

OBSERVATION
A yellow precipitate is observed

INFERENCE
Sucrose or non-reducing sugars is present



5. TEST FOR FATS AND OILS

(a) Translucent test
i. Drop oil on a spot on a filter paper
ii. Observe the spot against a source of light
OBSERVATION
The drop of oil becomes more translucent. Which means it allow more light to pass through it when held in front of it

INFERENCE
The translucency shows the presence of fats and oils


(b) SUDAN (iii) TEST

i. Add a few drops of Sudan (iii) solution to in a test tube
ii. Then boil the solution
OBSERVATION
i. A red colouration appears before boiling.
ii. A black precipitate is form on boiling

INFERENCE

Fats and oil is present


(6) TEST FOR WATER
i. Dip a blue, dry cobalt chloride paper in a food item
OBSERVATION
The colour of the paper changes from blue to pink

INFERENCE

Water is present





agricultural biology topics
You can read some of most interesting topics below
Agricultural biology topics
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER





88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES

152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

WATER AS A CLASS OF FOOD IN THE BODY


WATER AS A CLASS OF FOOD IN THE BODY

What is water?
Water is composed of two elements known as hydrogen and oxygen. It is two molecules of hydrogen to a molecule of oxygen in percentage.
We cannot fully comprehend the fullness of life without the importance of water to living things. There is this adage in Nigeria that say water has no enemy. How true this word is can be seen right through the pages of the bible and our everyday activities. Historically, water serves as a means or instrument of purification. Although the scope of this article will not delve deep into the characters of a good water, uses of water at home, or the general importance of water to farmers in the scope of agriculture science.
Water can be hard or soft.
Water contain a lot of micro living organisms that can only be seen with the aid of a microscope.
For the intent of this article, the body of animals mostly humans consists of at least 70% water. Water can be found in the natural and artificial state and can be found everywhere. In fact, water is termed as the pivot of life itself. No water no life.
Let us take a look at the availability of water and its sources






SOURCES OF WATER

Sources of water available to animals include metabolic water from food, drinking water from tap, rivers, rain water and ponds.

IMPORTANCE OF WATER
The essential importance of water to animals are listed in the following ways
i. Water is required for metabolic activities in the body
ii. Water is necessary for the digestion of food
iii. Water can be used for the maintenance of body temperature
iv. Water is the main components of plants and animals. It forms about 75% of the body of humans
v. Water can act as solvent for soluble food substances in digestion
vi. Water serves as a medium of transportation for nutrients
vii. Water constitutes a greater part of blood
viii. Water helps to maintain the osmotic content of the body tissues
ix. Water is the basis of secretion from endocrine glands

You can read about the water cycle here
1. Water cycle
2. Maintenance of soil water
3. Protein as a class of food
4. Carbohydrates as a class of food
5. Classes of minerals and deficiency symptoms
6. Classes of vitamins and deficiency symptoms
7. Types of carbohydrates


ROUGHAGES
Roughages consists of indigestible fibrous materials derived from vegetables, fruits, carbohydrates and proteins.
Roughages provide bulk to the intestinal content thereby stimulating the movement of bowel.
Lack of Roughages in the diet can cause constipation.
Roughages are easily digested by micro-organisms in the intestinal tract.










Here is a typical examples of the classes of food
1. VITAMINS=====fruits, vegetables, egg, milk, liver oil etc.
2. FAT=======groundnut, melon, butter, margarine, palm oil, soya bean oil and cod liver oil
3. WATER============Water in plants, water in animals, water in drinks, beverages and food
4. MINERAL SALTS========vegetables, fruits, bones, egg and table salt
5. CARBOHYDRATES=======Rice, bread, millet, cassava, yam, cocoyam, potato etc.
6. PROTEIN=========MEAT, BEANS, GROUNDNUT ETC.


You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS





125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION





THE HUMAN SKELETON AND FUNCTIONS1



FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN SKELETON

We are not doing justice if we fail to expand the scope of study of the human

The adult human skeletal system consists of 206 bones,

as well as a network of tendons, ligaments and cartilage that connects them. The skeletal system performs vital functions — support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation — that enable us to survive.

Animals with internal skeletons made of bone, called vertebrates,

are actually the minority on Earth. As much as 98 percent of all animals are invertebrates, meaning they do not have internal skeletons or backbones.
The amount of bones a person is born with isn't the final tally later on. Human infants are born with about 300 bones, some of which fuse together as the body develops. By the time humans reach adult-hood, they have 206 bones. Human males grow until their late teens and females grow until two years after the beginning of their menstrual cycle, typically. This is when the growth plates on bones usually close, halting bone expansion.






The skeletons of adult males and females have some variation, primarily to accommodate childbirth. The female pelvis is flatter, more rounded and proportionally larger, for example. A male's pelvis is about 90 degrees or less of angle, whereas a female's is 100 degrees or more.

While they become brittle when outside of the body, bones are very much alive inside the body, being fed by a network of blood vessels from the circulatory system and nerves from the nervous system, according to Healthline.

A typical bone has a dense and tough outer layer. Next is a layer of spongy bone, which is lighter and slightly flexible. In the middle of some bones is jelly-like bone marrow, where new cells are constantly being produced for blood, according to the Merck Manuals.

Teeth are considered part of the skeletal system but they are not counted as bones. Teeth are made of dentin and enamel, which is strongest substance in your body. Teeth also play a key role in the digestive system.

The skeletal system has two distinctive parts: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton, according to the U.S National Library of Medicine (NLM).

The axial skeleton,/h2>< with a total of 80 bones, consists of the vertebral column, the rib cage and the skull. The axial skeleton transmits the weight from the head, the trunk and the upper extremities down to the lower extremities at the hip joints, which help humans maintain our upright posture, skeletal system and how it works to support and give


us our very shape and build. As I wrote earlier here WHAT IS SKELETON? If you haven’t read it yet please do and come back here to continue with the human skeletal functions
So what are the function of the human skeleton? The skeletal system in man functions the following ways
1.

SUPPORT

The rigid framework of the body known as the skeletal system or skeleton gives support to the body, the vertebral column, pelvic girdle and the pectoral girdle provides a framework by which the viscera can be supported.

As a result the internal organs are protected from crushing each other and the shape of the shape of the body is thereby maintained. The vertebral column or framework forms a pillar-like-structure into which the girdles and ribs are attached






2.

PROTECTION/h2>< The skeleton protects important and delicate organs of the body. Just as the skull forms a covering for the delicate tissues of the brain. It also houses the complicated parts of the inner ear. The skeletal system also protects and houses the eyeball. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord
The rib cage protects all the important organs of the thorax such as the heart, liver, lungs and blood vessels.
The pelvic girdle protects




abdominal organs such the urinary bladder and the female reproductive organs.


3.

MOVEMENT

The skeleton as a whole is made up of several small bones which are jointed and brings about movement
The skeleton provides a base for the attachment of muscles which brings about the movement of the body and limbs and gives them the ability to bend and twist in any desired direction.
The contraction and relaxation of the muscles attached to the bones also bring about movement


4.

RESPIRATION

The thoracic bone of the ribs, caged together with the muscles attached to them assists in respiration. This provision mostly assists humans in expiration and respiration
This is always seen and felt physically during respiration, not just humans but in most vertebrate. You can always see the expansion and contraction of the chest like a balloon, inflating and deflating. The connection of the bones of the rib bones to the sternum is logically the brain behind this intricate movement of the chest.

5.

MANUFACTURE OF BLOOD CELLS
The white and red blood cells are manufactured by the long bones of the body inside their marrow. This process of the blood cells being manufactured within the bone marrow is the work of a great creator. No doubt that from the unification of the male and female gametes, the cells begins to divide through so many processes like mitosis, meiosis the newly formed zygote begins a new journey of multiple expansion


6.

MUSCLES ATTACHMENT

The skeleton is and always been a comprehensive framework that gives shape to the body but most importantly that the skeleton provides places or point for the attachment of muscles.
The muscles are attached to bones by means of TENDONS.
You can read here for more about muscles


7.

SHAPE

DWANE JOHNSON popularly known as the ROCK with facelift
Sadly enough is that bones of an average human are rigid and strong which does not allow tweaking unless with little changes at a very tender age.
Because the skeletal shape comes natural. So the shape of an organism is therefore determined by the internal framework of the skeleton

8.

STORAGE OF MINERAL SALTS

The as I earlier mention, helps to store important mineral salts such as calcium and phosphorus, hence some bones serves as sources of food or minerals for some animals, like the preparation of bone meal as livestock feed

Keeping the human skeleton or skeletal system in shape and intact is of utmost importance because accident resulting to fracture or broken bone, even when treated can never give you the maximum reliance and performance of its original capacity. Although in some communities in the world, mostly in the part of Nigeria where I come from, there are local or traditional methods applied in joining broken bones. The duration it takes to heal and fix a completely broken bone varies from 2 to 4 months highest and that depending on the age of the affected person.
The traditional treatment of bones in Africa is the more reason most African soccer stars don’t bow out from the game due to bone injuries, people like the great SAMUEL ETO FIL, AUSTIN JAY JAY OKOCHA, DIDIER DROGBA and the rest I cannot be able to mention due to the scope of this article.
So in a nutshell, stay away from anything that may cause you to be injured, and play safe.








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6.


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS





125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION




THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON


THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON/h1>
The appendicular skeleton is made up of the girdles. That is the pectoral and pelvic girdle, as well as the bones of the limbs which



comprises of the fore limbs and hind limbs.
Here let’s look at the structure, formation, and the functions of these groups of skeletal system.

THE PECTORAL GIRDLES

The pectoral girdle is found in the or around the shoulder in man. It is made of two halves which are held by muscles. Each half of the girdle is made of three bones. These bones are







1. THE SCAPULA OR SHOULDER BLADE.
2. THE CLAVICLE OR COLLAR BONE
3. CORACOID

IN MAMMALS, THE SCAPULA AND THE CORACOID ARE FUSED TOGETHER to form what is called SCAPULA CORACOID.
THE SCAPULA IS A FLAT TRIANGULAR BONE. AT THE APEX IS A HOLLOW OR CAVITY CALLED GLENOID CAVITY INTO WHICH THE HEAD OF THE HUMERUS FITS TO FORM THE SHOULD JOINT.
Above the glenoid cavity is a small hook-shaped bone called coracoid bone.
On the other surface of the scapula, there is a ridge or spine called the scapula spine. It runs down towards the glenoid cavity.
The scapula spine ends with two projections which are acromion and metacromion.
Acromion is shorter than the metacromion but the metacromion is larger.
The clavicle is a small rod bone attached to the ligament joining the sternum to the acromion of the scapula.
The pectoral girdle especially the surface of the scapula, the two processes and the spine are important for the attachment of muscles and ligaments. The pectoral girdle also provides support for the fore limbs.



THE PELVIC GIRDLE


The pelvic girdle is found in the region close to the waist in man. It consists of two halves which are joined to each other ventrally and to the sacrum dorsally. The fusion is called PUBIS SYMPHYSIS.
Each half is called INNOMINATE BONE
Each half is made up of three bones, which are
1. Ilium
2. Ischium
3. Pubis
At the top of it all is the ilium which is the largest and longest of the three bones. At the lower end is the fused bones, ischium and pubis. The ischium and the pubis enclosed an opening or a hole called OBTURATOR FORAMEN.
It is the through this holes that nerves, blood vessels and muscles pass through. So on the other surface of each half of the girdle where the three bones meet, there is a deep hollow or depression called ACETABULUM where the head of the femur of the hind limb fits in to form the hip-joint which is an example of a ball and socket joint






h2>THE LIMBSWhat is a limb? Where can the limb be found?
The limbs are made up of the fore limbs which is the bones of the hands and the hind limbs which are the bones of the legs.
The limbs of most vertebrates are built in the same way or process, and this called PENTADACTYL LIMB---5-digit plan.
It is made up of a long bone which is followed by a pair of two long bones that lies side by side. The pair of these long bones is followed by a set of nine small bones which are arranged in three rows.
T5he nine small bones are followed by five digits. Each digits of the small bone is called phalanges. Here is a diagram of the phalanges of man
\

THE FORE LIMBS

What are the fore limbs? Where can we find a fore limb?
So fore limbs of a typical mammal is made up of an upper arm bone, which is a long bone called humerus. It has a pound head which fits in



and articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula of the pectoral girdle of the shoulder joint.
The lower of the humerus is like hinged pulley like surface called TROCHLEA. At the trochlea, the humerus articulates with the ulna and radius to form the elbow joint.

The humerus is followed by the bones of the fore-arm. The fore-arm bone are the radius and ulna. The radius is a long bone. It lies in front of the ulna and is slightly curved.
The ulna is longer than the radius. The ulna has a cavity called sigmoid cavity. The trochlea fits into this cavity. The ulna also projects backwards to form a projection called OLECRANON PROCESS




The radius/ulna bone is followed by bones of the wrists which are made of nine small bones arranged in three rows. These bones are called CARPALS. In the fore front, the carpals articulates with the radius/ulna and dixtally with the bones of the digits.
The wrist bones are followed by the bones of the digits. The digit bones are five and they are called metacarpals.
In man the metacarpals are called fingers, and they are also refers to as the phalanges.
In man, each digits has three phalanges with the exception of the thumb which has only two. In Rabbits, the phalanges ends in claws

THE HIND LIMBS

The hind limbs of a typical mammal is made up of the thigh bone called the femur. The femur is the largest and strongest bone found in the body. It is rounded at the proximal end to form a head which fits into the acetabulum of the pelvic girdle to form a hip joint.
Very close to the end of the femur, there are three projections called TROCHANTERS. They are very important for the attachment of muscles. At the distal end of the femur, are two rounded heads called CONDYLES. They articulate with the TIBIA bone. In between the two condyles is a pulley-like hoof.
The shank is made up of two bones called TIBIA and FIBULA. The Tibia is longer and stronger than the Fibula. At the end or proximal there are two grooves into which the condyles of the femur fits into.
The fibula is a small bone which lies outside the tibia. In front of this joint is a small round bone called the PATELLA or KNEE-CAP
The ankle is made up of six bones called tarsals. The inner tarsals projects backward to form the heel bone.
The foot of rabbit is made up of four digits called METATARSALS. Each digit is made up of three phalanges.
Most mammals including man has five metatarsals.



THE RIBS

The ribs of a typical vertebrate are long semi-circular rods connecting the thoracic vertebrae to the breastbone known as the sternum.
It is found in the chest region of mammals. There are twelve of ribs found in humans while the rabbit has thirteen in number. The bony cage formed by the ribs protects vital organs like the lungs and heart.
It also assist in breathing

So a typical rib consists of a head, which fits in between successive thoracic vertebrae, secondly a neck and most importantly the SHAFT.

Each rib articulates with the thoracic vertebrae by two processes.
i.

The CAPITALUM

which articulates with facets of the two near-by vertebrae and
ii.

The TUBERCULUM

known as tubercle articulates with the transverse process.


The first seven pairs of ribs are called the true ribs because they are connected directly with the sternum by costal cartilages. The next five pairs of ribs are called false ribs because the eighth, ninth and the tenth pair have a common connection with the sternum, each being attached to costal cartilages of the ribs above.
The eleventh and twelfth ribs are called FLOATING RIBS because they have connection whatsoever with the sternum


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You can read some of most interesting topics below

Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION




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