types of Ecto parasite


TYPES OF ECTO-PARASITE

Ectoparasites include scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei), the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius), fleas, and lice, including the body louse (Pediculus humanis), pubic louse (Phthirius pubis), and head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis).Ectoparasites are often arthropods that attack the exterior surface of a host.
For example, the common tick is the carrier of the extracellular bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi responsible for Lyme disease. The bacteria are introduced into the host when the tick bites him/her to obtain a blood meal. Large numbers of basophils, eosinophils and mast cells accumulate at the bite site to repel both the attacking bacteria and the tick.
It is thought that when mast cell degranulation releases substances that increase vascular permeability, ticks have greater difficulty in locating host blood vessels. Some ectoparasites are countered by the same strategies effective against helminth worms. Anti=pathogen bound to the surface of basophils and mast cells is critical for host defense against such invaders.









For example, humans who lack adequate numbers of basophils and eosinophils develop scabies, a severe, itchy rash caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Much remains to be determined about the molecular details of immune responses to ectoparasites.

Ectoparasites include scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei), the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius), fleas, and lice, including the body louse (Pediculus humanis), pubic louse (Phthirius pubis), and head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis). Their severity ranges from nuisance value to serious public health hazard. Head lice are common in schoolchildren worldwide and are mainly a distressing nuisance. The body louse serves as a vector for epidemic typhus, trench fever, and louse-borne relapsing fever. In disaster situations, disinfection and hygienic practices may be essential to prevent epidemic typhus. The flea plays an important role in the spread of the plague by transmitting the organism from rats to humans. Control of rats has reduced the flea population; however, during war and disasters, rat and flea populations may thrive. Scabies, which is caused by a mite, is common worldwide and transmitted from person to person==human contagious diseases. The mite burrows under the skin and causes intense itching. All of these ectoparasites are preventable by proper hygiene and the treatment of cases. The spread of these diseases is rapid and therefore warrants immediate attention

Family Pediculidae
Parasites of primates, including humans; bodies fairly robust, not covered with dense spines; abdomen armed with pleural plates (paratergites) and with tergal and sternal plates in most species; with well-developed eyes, comprised of pigment granules and a lens; with legs approximately equal in length or with first pair slightly smaller. (Genera mentioned in text: Pediculus, Phthirus)

The ectoparasites most commonly found on nonhuman primates are lice and mites. These blood-sucking and biting arthropods are not host specific and will move from one warm-blooded animal to another. Both are known to serve as vectors of human rickettsial diseases such as epidemic typhus fever and scrub typhus. Although there is no documentation that such diseases have been transmitted from infected monkeys to humans, mites from nonhuman primates were thought to be responsible for dermatitis in human contacts, including pediculosis from spider monkeys (Ronald and Wagner, 1973) and sarcoptic mange from macaques (Smiley and O’Connor, 1980).

The lung mite, Pneumonyssus simicola, causes pulmonary acariasis in monkeys and is very common iThis parasite is not thought to be zoonotic but is noteworthy because the small cystic lesions of this infestation, found throughout the lung parenchyma but particularly on the surface, are often numerous and may be confused with those caused by tuberculosis.

lists of ecto parasite

• ACARI
• VARROA DESTRUCTOR
• CYMOTHOA EXIGUA
• BED BUGS
• CULICIDAE (MOSQUITOES)
• CALYPTRA (VAMPIRE MOTHS)
• HIPPOBOSCOIDEA
• TSETSE FLY
• LIPOPTENA
• MELOPHAGUS OVINUS, (SHEEP KEDS) AND RELATIVES
• OESTRIDAE (BOT FLIES)
• HUMAN BOTFLY
• PHLEBOTOMINAE (SAND FLIES)
• PHTHIRAPTERA (LICE)
• BODY LOUSE
1. CRAB LOUSE
2. HEAD LOUSE
3. SIPHONAPTERA (FLEAS)
4. TABANIDAE (HORSE FLIES)
5. TANTULOCARIDA
6. TRIATOMINAE
7. PEA CRAB
8. SACCULINA
9. ANNELIDS
10. HIRUDINEA (SOME LEECHES)
11. MONOGENEANS
12. MONOGENEANS ARE FLATWORMS, GENERALLY ECTOPARASITES ON FISH.

13. CALYDISCOIDES EUZETI
14. LETHACOTYLE VERA
15. PROTOCOTYLE EUZETMAILLARDI
16. PSEUDORHABDOSYNOCHUS SPP.
17. MOLLUSKS
18. CANCELLARIA COOPERII
19. GLOCHIDIUM
20. PYRAMIDELLIDAE
21. CHORDATES
22. COOKIECUTTER SHARK
23. CANDIRU (VAMPIRE FISH OF BRAZIL, A FACULTATIVE PARASITE)
24. LAMPREYS
25. MALE DEEP SEA ANGLERS
26. FALSE CLEANERFISH
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ectoparasite

https://schoolworkhelper.net/parasitism-ectoparasites-endoparasites-symbionts-defenses/


Lice are wingless, meaning they can’t fly. ectoparasites. Ectoparasites are parasites that live on the outside of their host.
There are two main kinds of lice in the order Phlethiraptera. These are the biting lice, which are most often found on birds, and the sucking lice, which are mostly found on mammals.
Biting lice


Biting lice (Mallophaga) are Ectoparasites of birds, and occasionally of mammals.
Their mouthparts are adapted for chewing=biting and chewing insects, and they munch away on skin fragments, skin secretions, feathers and hair. Few species of lice do feed on host blood, especially from existing wounds.
Bird lice are highly host specific, which means that they stick to certain species of bird. This fact has made zoologists review the relationships and classification of some birds, because birds that share similar species of lice may be more closely related

Biting lice rarely have a detrimental effect on their hosts. However, in man-made situations, such as chicken farms, they can occur in large numbers. In those circumstances they can cause a lot of irritation to the farmed birds, causing them to scratch a lot. The birds might then get skin infections due to the sore skin.
Sucking lice
Sucking lice (Siphunculata) have long oval bodies, and their heads are smaller than those of biting lice. Their scientific name comes from the Latin word siphunculus, which means little pipe or siphon.
Sucking lice have piercing mouthparts-holozoic feeding adaptation, which they use to suck the blood of their hosts, including man. They hang on to hair with a single large claw at the end of their strong legs. Lice that feed exclusively on blood do not get a well-balanced diet, and make up for this by having bacteria in their gut that provide the additional nutrients, well this process still remains a mystery to me to be honest


Nearly every mammal species can be infested by a sucking louse - even seals and walruses have them! These 'marine lice' all belong to the family Echinophthiriidae, and they can exist for long periods under water by taking a layer of air down with them between their specially modified body hairs, or by breathing air trapped in the host's body hair.


don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS

MAINTENANCE OF FARM MACHINERY IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE


MAINTENANCE OF FARM MACHINERY

1. Identify when to maintain farm machines and the operation involved.
2. Carry out simple maintenance operations. Farmers spend a lot of money to buy farm machines.
If they art last long, adequate care, and maintenance should be carried out. For proper understanding of the various maintenance operations the manufacturer’s handbook on the assembling, operation, care and maintenance of farm machines and implements should be studied carefully and the instructions about usage should be followed.

Different ways of maintaining farm machinery
(a) Dully maintenance: Before the commencement of operation, the fuel and engine oil levels on tractors and other machines should be checked. The Tyre pressures must be checked daily before machines are taken to the field for operation. It is necessary to ensure that all parts of the machine are in good oiling condition.







(b) After use storage:
(i) All farm machines and implements should be cleaned and stored in cool place after use.
(ii) Parts of machines and implements having contact with chemicals should be washed and painted or oiled daily. This will prevent the parts from rapid corrosion,
(iii) When machines and implements are to be kept for a long time, it is necessary to oil or grease the metal parts. This ii to prevent rusting.
(iv) Farm machines and farm implements should be sun and rain.

(c) Sharpening of blunt tools: The blunt ends of tools or implements should be sharpened before and after use

(d) Tightening of bolts and nuts: The loose screws, bolts and nuts-, holding parts of farm machines together should be tightened before the machines are operated or taken to the field for use.

(e) Regular servicing: Machines should be serviced at regular intervals to make them function properly and effectively.










(f) Lubrication of parts: The manufacturer's specification regarding the lubrication of parts of farm machines should be strictly followed. Lubricant or grease should be applied regularly to the appropriate bearings or grease points on wheels. Lubrication prevents the wearing out of moving parts that are in contact,

(g) Replacement of parts:

(i) The worn out or broken parts of machines and implement should be replaced or repaired. (

ii) The farmer should keep spare part& of farm machines and implements that are easily damaged.
This will facilitate immediate replacement of affected parts. Examples are plugs.

STUDY QUESTIONS
1. State the different ways of maintaining farm machinery.

don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER

80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE









126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

WHAT IS A TAPEWORM




Tapeworm

This is a long segmented flat worm which looks like the tape of the tailor.
The parasite mainly affects pigs and cattle.

The tapeworm possesses hooks and suckers in the scolex and these help to attach the parasite to its host while the suckers assist in feeding. FEEDS
In animals, the presence of tapeworm in tissues or organs could cause some physiological disorders, such as
anaemia, abdominal pains, weakness and loss of weight.

The parasite can be controlled by:

(i) maintaining good hygienic conditions










(ii) use of drugs (iii) proper cooking of meat before eating by man which serves as primary host. In a General sense, methods of controlling animal diseases Diseases can be:
(i) Prevention, and
(ii) Control.


(a) Prevention:
This involves the following practices:
(i) Good sanitation/hygiene
(b) Good feeding .
(c) Vaccination
(d) Quarantine (
e) Breeding
(f) Separation
(g) Rotational grazing.
(h) Control: This involves;
(i) Treatments

The use of drugs which may be in the form of powder, liquid or solids, given in water, feeds or as injections.

(ii) Destruction of diseased animals.

They arc either burnt or buried.












don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE








126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION


DISEASE ORGANISMS OF CROPS


DISEASE ORGANISMS OF CROPS

Types of disease organisms affecting crops
A disease could be defined as an abnormal condition in the crop plant. This may shown in some part & or on the whole plant causing damage to the plant. Some organisms are capable of causing diseases to crops. These organisms are called pathogens and they include:
(a) Bacteria (b) Fungi (c) Viruses (d) Nematodes.
State the main groups of disease organisms.
important crop diseases based on their symptoms.
Explain the stages of disease development and mode of transmission.
describe damages to crops.
preventive and control measures.

Types of disease organisms affecting crops
A disease could be defined as an abnormal condition in the crop plant. This may shown in some part & or on the whole plant causing damage to the plant. Some organisms are capable of causing diseases to crops. These organisms are called pathogens and they include:
(a) Bacteria (b) Fungi (c) Viruses (d) Nematodes
1. Bacteria
These are very small unicellular organisms. They are said to be ubiquitous because they can be found everywhere even in the remotest places where other plants and animals cannot live.

They are found in soils, dirty water, air. plant and animal bodies, can only be seen under the microscope.

The attack of bacteria on plants is manifested as rottening of plant parts accompanied with very bad smell. Though most bacteria are destructive as they cause disease*, some of them are useful man since they help in the following ways:

(a) Decomposition of compost (b) Production of drinks, e.g. beer (c) Making of butter and cheese (d) Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in root nodules of leguminous plants, thereby helping in increasing soil fertility.

There are three types of bacteria based on their shapes.

They are (spherical), bacilli (rod shaped) and spirilla (Spiral shaped).

2. Fungi
These are plant species but they do not possess chlorophyll stems roots and leaves. The body is made up of myceliium which of tiny delicate branches called hyphae.

The fruiting bodies originate from some of these hyphae. The spores many tiny spores through which the fungus is dispersed-. fungi have no chlorophyll, they cannot manufacture their own I hey depend on their host for their food, thereby causing uses the host plant.

3. Viruses
These are minute organisms that can only be seen under the tron microscope. Plants suffering from this disease show: (
a) Coloured spots and bands on the leaves (b) Twisted and wrinkled leaves (c) Stunted growth of the entire plant. Sucking insects e.g. mealy bugs, aphids and white flies can limit virus disease from one infected plant to a healthy one.

Almost all virus diseases have no effective cure.
It is advisable to prevent and control the disease as the case may be.

4. Nematodes These are soil-borne organisms which usually attack the roots of plants. They are capable of causing considerable damage to the plant.
Affected plants show decline in productivity and the roots become distorted with enlarged growths. Soil sterilization may help to control the spread of nematodes.
<







Important diseases of major crops


NAME OF DISEASE, CAUSATIVE PATHOGEN, CROPS AFFECTED, MODE OF SPREAD, SYMPTOMS, NATURE/EFFECT OF DAMAGE, PREVENTION & CONTROL

1 Smut Fungus (Ustilago spp) Maize, Rice, grain sorghum and other cereals By wind Grains are covered with large mass of spores The whole cob may be covered with mass of black spores thereby rendering them valueless Use clean seed s to plant. Treat seeds with fungicide

2 Streak Virus Maize By piercing and sucking insects Discoloured leaf surface forming streaks Reduces crop yield Early planting spray with insecticide. Rogue the affected plants

3 Blast of Rice Fungus (Pyricularia oryzae) Rice By wind Dead areas sho on lead surface Crop yield is reduced Grow resistant varieties. Treat seeds with fungicides

4 Leaf Rust Fungus (Punccinia spp) All cereals Wind and water Rust-coloured pustules develop on the leaves of the plant The leaves die resulting in poor production Early planting. Dress seed with fungicides.

5 Bacterial Blight Bacteria Sorghum cowpea, etc Wind and water Yellow leaves followed by defoliation and death of stem Yield is affected Grow resistant varieties. Use clean seeds.

6 Cercorspor a leaf spot Fungus (cercospora spp) Legumes By wind Yellow leaves followed by defoliation Yield is reduced
1. Plant early 2. Uproot affected plants and burn.

7 Rosette of groundnut Virus Groundnut By aphids, piercing and sucking insects Leaves are closely packed, wrinkle and mottled The leaves curl, turn yellow and this reduces yield. 1. Plant early
2. Use resistant varieties 3. Rogue affected plants

8 Mosaic Virus Cassava Yam
By Bemisia fly Yellow pale areas on leaves Leaf distortion and stunting of plant leading to reduced yield 1. Use resistant varieties 2. Use insecticide to kill the insects
3. Destroy the affected plants.

9 Tuber Rot Nematode, fungus Yam Through soil Yam tuber becomes brown in the tissues and later becomes soft. Renders the tuber valueless 1. Destroy affected tubers 2. Use Aldrin dust 3. Use Nematicide e.g. Mucap.

10 Root knot Nematode
(Root knot eel worm) Tomato and okro Through soil borne Nematode Knots in the roots of plants Wilting and retardation of growth and low yield. 1. Crop rotation 2. Use nematicides

11 Downy mildew Fungus Onion Airborne-disease fungus White coating on leaves Underdeveloped or small bulbs 1. Spray with sulphide of potassium



12 Sigatoka Fungus Banana and plantain Airborne fungus Chlorosis of leaves Small bunches and few fingers in bunches 1. Clean weeding and good spacing 2. Use appropriate fungicide

13 Damping off Fungus Okra Airborne and soil borne fungus Rotting of roots and wilting of leaves Yield is reduced 1. Treat soil with fungicides







14 Leaf blotch Fungus Pineapple By airborn fungus Streak on the entire leaf surface Yields are reduced Use copper fungicide to spray affected plants

15 Black arm Bacteria (Xanthomonas malyaccarum rain fungus (Phytophthora palmivora) Cotton Through the stoma Angular sports on leaves Cotton bolls rot. Use resistant varieties

16 Black pod Cocoa Rain splash, insects and animals Brown spots on pod leading to rotten and black pods The pods become useless leading to reduction in yield 1. Regular weeding of farm 2. Remove and bury all affected pods 3. Spray with fungicide like perenox and Bordeaux mixture

17 Swollen shoot Virus Cocoa By Nymphs or meaty bug and white flies Swelling on the growing parts of the stem and roots Distorted leaves and reduced growth in plants. There is underdevelopment of pods and low yield
1. Destroy all affected plants 2. Use resistant varieties

18 Freckle Fungus Oil palm By wind insects Brown spots on leaves which later dry and die Growth of palm is affected and maturity is delayed 1. Spray with fungicides such as captan, or diethane M45

19 Collar Rot Fungus (Ganoderma Lucidum) Oil palm Soil and wind borne fungus Rotting of old palms near the base of truck The disease can kill the palm tree
1. Disinfect with fungicides 2. Burn all infected trees

20 Antrannose Fungus Oil palm By wind and insects Leaves show clear spots. Spots turn dark-brown or black later and with yellow halo. Growth is affected in the nursery 1. Space germinating seedlings properly
2. Cut off affected parts of leaved and burn
3. Spray with fungicides, Cumin, Dithane M45, cAptan or Ziran in pre-nursery

21 White root Fungus (Fumes lignosus) Rubber Through the soil Leaf defoliation Taproots are attacked by fungi leading to the breakdown of their tissues. Plants die eventually 1. Burning farmland especially old trunks after clearing before planting of seedlings.

22 Mould Fungus Grains and seed By wind Formation of whitish spores on stored produce Grains or seeds are rendered useless
1. Proper drying of produce 2. Avoid dampy stores 3. Protect store from rain or flood.

23 Gummosis Fungus (Phytophhthrora spp) Citrus Through the soil and aided by moist condition
The cortex of the citrus plant is killed Gum pockets occur in the cambium. There is exudation of gum from the stem The stem tissue collapse and plant may fall and die
1. Plant resistant varieties e.g. stocks or four orange and rough lemon
2. Bud citrus plants 45cm from the ground and allow no branch below 1m 3. Proper farm drainage and sanitation reduce incidence

24 Tristeza Virus Citrus Through aphid (Toxoptera citricida) Yellowing of terminal shoots in plants; there is stem pitting Growth and yield are affected. The disease can kill the citrus plants. Control by budding plants on Cleopatra tangerine, lake and Sampson. Tangelo stocks and rough lemon
7.3 Nature and Effect of Disease Damage to Crop The nature of damage caused by a disease on crops depends on the type of disease causing organism. It also depends on the crops being affected. Generally, there is a reduction in, the yield of crops affected by the disease.

The market value of the product is also reduced. It is estimated that crop diseases account for about 20% loss of yield in crops all over the world. Disease attack also leads to i of planting materials.

7.4 Stages of Diseases Development and Transmission,
There are four major stages of disease development and transmission in crops. These are:

1. Invasion: This is the stage where 'the disease causing agent comes in contact with the host plant.

2. Establishment At this stage the disease causing agent enters and establishes it in the crop tissues.

3. Injury This is the stage where the disease pathogen multiplies itself leading to the actual attack of the host.

4. Mission/Spread This is the stage where the disease organism spreads from one plant to a healthy one. The process is aided by wind, water, insects contact and others.

7.5 Prevention and Control of Crop Diseases It is better and more economical to prevent a disease from, crops than to control it when it has occurred. The sure way luting diseases, in farms is to prevent the disease causing organism from reaching the crops.

This is possible through regular removal of rotten materials from the farm, routine spraying of crops planting resistant varieties and so on. However, crop diseases can be controlled in the following ways: 1. Cultural Control The techniques adopted in this control measure include:



(i) Proper care for plants such as regular weeding. This practice reduces the amount of disease attack on the crops. (ii) Bunting, of farmland: This involves setting farmland on fire before cultivation. The fire helps to kill disease causing agent such as bacteria, fungi, virus and others in the soil.
(iii) Karly Planting: Early planting enables the crops to escape the outbreak of some crop diseases.
(iv) Practicing Crop Rotation: This practice, ensures that crop which suffer from similar diseases do not follow each other in the same rotation. This is to make sure that the cycle of the disease development is disturbed.
(v) Removal of dead plants and other disease harboring agents from the farm. The source of the disease is removed when this is done.

2. Biological Control

This involves the use of good resistant crops varieties to plant. It is a very successful method of controlling most serious^ plant diseases. Over the years, scientists have developed crop types which have great resistance to some deadly crop diseases. The use of which helps to control most diseases of crops.


3. Chemical Control This involves the use of chemicals to kill the disease organism affecting the crops. For example: (i) Fungicides such as perenox. Bordeaux mixture, and copper sulphate are used in the control of fungus diseases. (ii) Virus diseases can be controlled by using appropriate chemicals such as vetox 85 to kill the vectors e.g. aphids. mealy-bugs white flies, etc. that transmit the virus diseases.
(iii) Most bacterial diseases can now be treated using appropriatle chemicals (bacteriacides) such as Agrosan 5W mercurial duss and acid.
(iv) Nematodes can be controlled by using nematicides such a nemagoiu and DDT.

don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.








HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION

80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION







IMPORTANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY AND MANAGEMENT


SOIL FERTILITY AND MANAGEMENT

Explain the meaning of soil fertility and a fertile soil. 2. Outline the various methods of soil fertility management. 3. State the advantages and disadvantages of each method of soil fertility. Soil fertility is the capacity of the soil to supply mineral nutrient elements to crop. The nutrients must be in adequate amounts and in suitable proportions to enhance crop production.


Meaning of conservation

A fertile soil is that which contains adequate nutrient elements required by crops.

Characteristics of a Fertile Soil
1. High cation exchange capacity (C.E.C.)
2. Good water holding capacity
3. Adequate humus contents
4. Good granular (Spheroidal)
5. Easily tilled (good work-ability)
6. Essential elements available in required forms and amount. Sometimes, a soil may not be able to produce good crops even if it is fertile. This is because of the inability of the soil to make nutrients available to the crops in the right amount.

This can happen because of several factors such as:
(a) Too much acids or bases in the soil. (b) Poor soil structure. (c) The proportion of the different soil particles present in the soil (Texture). (d) Climatic factors such as amount of rainfall and temperature. (e) The nature of the clay lattice. (f) Cation exchange capacity of the soil.

2.2 Methods of Soil Fertility Management
There are several methods that can be used to maintain the fertility of the soil. They include bush fallowing, cover cropping, rotation cropping, application of organic and inorganic fertilizers.
1. Bush fallowing This is the practice of leaving a farm-land uncultivated for a period of time. This is to allow the soil to regain its lost nutrients in natural form. For instance, leaves from the shrubs and herbs drop and decay thus adding manure to the soil.


Advantages
1. It can effectively maintain soil fertility in areas with low pressure on land. 2. It protects the soil against erosion. 3. Fallen leaves decompose to increase organic matter content of the soil. 4. Evaporation of soil water and leaching of minerals are reduced. 5. There is also a build up of living organisms in the soil which arc useful for soil modification and granulation.

Disadvantages 1. It is a very slow process of managing soil fertility. 2. It does not suit the increasing demand for land due to population increase. 3. The period allowed for fallow is not enough for adequate replacement of lost nutrients. 2. Cover Cropping This is the growing of crops purposely to provide cover for the. soil. Crops such as melon, cowpea (trailing type), groundnut, sweet potato, and others could be grown along side the main crops to provide cover for the soil.

Others like pueraria. niucuna and centrosema can be used in plantations or on fallow lands. Advantages 1. They protect the soil against erosion. 2. Evaporation of soil water is reduced. 3. They prevent the leaching of useful mineral elements in the soil. 4. They suppress weeds on the farmland 5. Their fallen leaves decompose to add organic matter to the soil. 6. Where legumes are used, they help to increase the nitrogen content of the soil due to the action of root nodule bacteria 7. They can be worked into the soil as green 8. They help to maintain fairly stable soil fertility "'

Disadvantages
1. Cover crops compete with the main crops for nutrient elements and available water. 2. They increase the rate of loss of water in the soil through transpiration.

3. Rotation Cropping

This is the growing of crops on a piece of land year after year in a definite order. Advantages 1. The use of a good rotational system of cropping enables soil to be used continuously without rapid loss of essential nutrients. 2. It is an ideal system to be used where land is scarce or may be land tenure system. 3. It is a labour saving system as the same land is prepared for planting every year. 4. Weeds are effectively checked . 5. Erosion is reduced because the land is not exposed. 6. It reduces the build up, of host specific diseases and pests.


Disadvantages


The major disadvantage of this method is that continuous tillage of the surface soil renders it loose and easily eroded.' 4. Organic Manuring Manures are plants and animal materials that (botanical names of crops) are added to the soil to supply nutrients needed for the growth of crops. A well decomposed organic matter is called humus. Humus is a rich source of plant nutrients suitable for vegetable gardening.



Types of Organic Manures
The major types of organic manures are green manure, form yard manure and compost manure (i) Green manures: These are undecomposed green plants parts which are turned into the soil. Some plants are grown specifically to be worked or dug intp the ground to serve as source of plant nutrients. Examples arc mucuna, centrosema. pueraria. calopogonium and fresh green weeds. This is done mostly when they are young and succulent tor easy decomposition. It also involves the growing of leguminous plants for the purpose of soil improvement. This is the reason for increase in yield of other crops planted after a legume, such as groundnut, pigeon peas, and cowpea which add nitrogen, check out nitrogen cycle here In the soil has been harvested.


Advantages
(a) It provides organic matter to the soil to improve its physical condition. (b) It supplies nitrogen and other plant nutrients. (c) It protects the soil against erosion.
(d) It reduces the loss of nutrients through leaching.

Disadvantages
(a) There is competition for basic nutrients and water. (b) They may harbour diseases and pests of crop plant. (c) It may be expensive to grow green manure plants. It is advised that plants to be used as green manure should (a) Easily establish. (b) Grow quickly. (c) Produce abundant succulent shoots and roots in a short time. (d) Easily cover the ground. (e) Grow on poor soils.

(ii) Farm yard manure: This is a mixture of animal droppings, urine, food remains and bedding or litter. Manure from poultry, goats and sheep are the richest forms of farm yard manure. They are followed by those of pigs, horse and cattle. The materials are heaped under a shed to decompose for sometime before use.









They could be used direct on the farm.
They should be properly handled, as too much exposure may lead to breakdown of the nutrients. The more volatile constituents such as nitrogen could be lost as ammonia gas. It is often better to mix manures from different types of animals to be used as pen manure than to apply only one type. The quality of farm yard manure depends on: (i) The species of animals producing the materials (ii) Age and condition of the animal. (iii) The type of feed given to the animal.

(iv) Nature and amount of litter. That is, whether absorbent materials are used as bedding (v) The handling and methods of storage before use on the farm. Farm yard manure can be applied by broadcasting before tillage especially when the soil is moist or wet. It can be spread on the bed and mixed with the soil before planting. read planting operation here




Advantages.
It contains ail the required plant nutrients.

2. It is reasonably cheap as it can be obtained from the farm. 3. It has a lasting effect on the soil. 4. It binds loose sandy soil together. 5. It also loosens compact clay soils. 6. It enables the soil to absorb and retain moisture easily. you can also read types of soil here

Disadvantages
1. It is very bulky. 2. It requires much labour during application. 3. It has the tendency to encourage rapid growth of weeds. (iii) Compost manure: This is the decayed plant and animal remains in heaps or stacks or pits, used as manure on the farm. The materials needed for compost making include grass cuttings, hedge trimmings, weeds, vegetable wastes, leaves and otter organic wastes from the kitchen. Ash or lime or animal dungs or old compost, chemical activators such as sulphate of ammonia are also added. Young and succulent plant parts should be used instead of woody and tough parts. This is because decomposition is easier and contains much nutrients for healthy plant growth. A suitable area of the farm, preferably near the edge, should be chosen. The area should not be water-logged.


When prepared during the dry season, there should be a nearby water source.

Methods of compost making:
Two methods can be used in compost making. These are the pit method and the stack or heap method.
The pit method is used in areas of low rainfall or in the dry season while the stack or heap method is used in high rainfall areas or during the rainy season. Whichever method is used , the processes as well as the materials used remain the same.

Processes of compost making READ MORE HERE
1. Dig lour pits or peg out four areas.
2. Add kitchen wastes, yam peelings, orange skin and pulp, rotten fruits and anything that rots easily. 3. Then, add grass cuttings. hedge trimmings, vegetable wastes and tilled or the desired height is compress. 4. Repeat this process until the pit is filled or the desired height reached if heap method is used. 5. Cover the top with soil to prevent the entering of flies.

6. Insert a stick at one end or at the center in case of pit method. This is called a "tester". It detects if decomposition is going on or not. The stick will be hot if there is decomposition after about 5 days or else, it will be cold.
7. Turn materials or the content of pit A or heap A into B after two weeks. Refill pit or heap A.
Repeat this step until pit or heap D is reached and the desired quantity obtained. 8. Cover the final products with suitable materials until it is ready for use. This will prevent the loss of important nutrients due to strong sun or rain water. ‘Starters' are materials used to initiate decomposition process of compost materials. Examples are animal wastes, old compost or materials that rot easily. Chemicals such as sulphate of ammonia could be used to induce decaying process in the absence of starters. Such chemicals are called 'activators''. Turning of compost in pit or stack. Advantages of compost manure 1. It provides sources of food to living organisms in the soil. like earthworms, termites and microbes. 2. It adds nutrients to the soil for increased crop yield,


3. It improves the physical condition of the soil texture and structure and texture. 4. It helps to maintain equal amounts of acid and ha-. the soil. 5. It helps to conserve soil moisture and prevents erosion
6. It has a modifying effect on soil temperature;


Disadvantages
1. It involves much labour in preparation. 2. It is time involving and not economic for use in large farms. 3. It could cause scorching if applied when not fully matured 4. It may introduce disease causing agents. This will happen if not may properly handled or allowed to mature before use. Application of inorganic manures or fertilizers Inorganic manures or fertilizers are chemical substances in of powder, granules or crystals which are added to the soil to provide nutrients that are deficient. Fertilizers are manufactured in the industry from rocks and other materials. Types of fertilizers There are two types of fertilizers: (i) Straight or single or simple fertilizers: These are fertilizers that contain one of the major plant nutrients in the form plants can use. They contain one primary element such as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus in their composition. These are called the key nutrients. Examples are sulphate of ammonia, urea, ammonia nitrate, sodium nitrate with nitrogen as the key nutrient. Also, single super phosphate, concentrated super phosphate and calcium meta-phosphate all contain phosphorus as their key element. Others are muriate of potash (potassium (1) chloride), crude potash and caliphate-of-potash-alluvial -potassium-asthe-ir-primary element. (ii) Mixed or complex or compound fertilizers: These are fertilizers that contain two or more primary nutrient elements pill filler materials. The nutrients are in ratios and the ratio refers to the proportion of the major nutrients to one another. Examples are N.P.K: 15:15:15, 20:20:20, N.P.K: Mg. 12: 12:17:2 and others Handling of fertilizers: As a result of the inherent hazards of fertilizers such as stinging sensations, blisters, itching irritations and other skin diseases, care should be taken to avoid bodily contacts. the user should always put on gloves and protective clothing when handling fertilizers. Storage of fertilizers: Fertilizers are stored in bags of synthetic fabrics which prevent entry of water and moist air that could lead to dissolution. Tarpaulins should be used to give additional protection to the fertilizers stored at ports warehouses, field depots of the Ministry of Agriculture and other agencies. Farmers should construct a simple fertilizer store among their stead. They should be stored differently according to types for easy identification and access. Platforms of wood should be made on which the bags are stacked, up to a considerable height, to avoid slippage and allow for easy stock taking. It should not rest on the wail. Air circulation should be encouraged in the store.


Advantages of fertilizers: 1. They bring about increase in crop yield. 2. They increase farm income. 3. They increase the productivity of poor soils. 4. They are easily transported to where they are needed compared to organic manures. 5. They are used on large scale. 6. The nutrients in fertilizers are readily available to crops. Disadvantages 1. Fertilizers are easily leached in the soil. 2. Some fertilizers leave acidic residues in the soil. 3. Inorganic manures do not improve soil structure. 4. Some of the nutrients aie easily lost as gases under intease heat of the sun. Example is ammonia. 5. Fertilizers are expensive to procure. 6. They are sometimes not available at the time of need. Methods of applying fertilizers 1. Broadcasting: This is where fertilizer is evenly spread on the farmland. It could be done before ploughing or tillage to incorporate it into the soil. 2. Side dressing or application: This is where small quantity of fertilizer is placed on one or two sides of individual crop. 3. Ring application: A shallow trench is dug round individual crop a few centimetres away from the stem. Fertilizer is then sprinkled in the trench and covered with soil. 4. Row application: This is where fertilizer is applied in row few centimetres from the crops. It is suitable when crops are planted in rows 5. Top dressing: This is where fertilizer is applied to the surface soil within the reach of the roots of crops during the growing stage. 6. Foliar application: This is where soluble fertilizers are applied as sprays on the leaves of crops.


don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.








HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE












WHAT IS PLANT AND THE IMPORTANCE OF PLANT TO FARMING




crop Plants

Plants are one of the two groups into which all living things have been traditionally divided the other is animals. Plants • Plants are also called as green plants which are living organisms of the kingdom Plantae including such multi-cellular groups as flowering plants, conifers, ferns and mosses, as well as, depending on definition, the green algae.
Green plants have cell walls with cellulose and characteristically obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis using chlorophyll contained in chloroplasts, which gives them their green color. •

Some plants are parasitic and may not produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or photosynthesize. Cultivation of the Soil • The principle of cultivation is to turn and break down the soil to a fine tilts to provide the ideal environment for seeds to germinate called tillage • Soil cultivation (or digging) is mainly carried out to bury weeds and debris. This is usually followed by surface preparation for sowing and planting. • What does cultivation do? o







The idea is to increase the surface area or increase the macro pore space to facilitate infiltration and percolation, and to increase air diffusion into the soil. Tillage • Tillage is mechanical manipulation of soil-in agriculture, it is usually restricted to modifying soil conditions for crop production.here is an article on tillage implements here • It is believed to improve water infiltration and retention of rain water. •

Tillage alters soil porosity (assuming a crust is present), thus allowing a good exchange between soil air with atmospheric air. • Tillage should provide proper conditions for seed germination, particularly a good water to-air balance. Tilled soil offers little resistance to seedling emergence or root penetration. • Tillage provides some weed control and incorporation of plant residue. Tillage System • Intensive tillage • Reduced tillage • Conservation tillage

read types of tillage here
TYPES OF TILLAGE IN DETAILS


Positive Effects of Tillage •


Plowing loosens and aerates the top layer of soil which can facilitate the planting of the crop




Erosion of soil. •
It is a mechanical way used for destroying weeds. • Dries the soil before seeding. Negative Effects of tillage • Dries the soil before seeding • Erosion of soil • Compaction of the soil, also known as a tillage pan. • Decreases the water infiltration rate of soil. Agricultural Chemistry •


Agricultural chemistry is the study of both chemistry and biochemistry which are important in agricultural production, the processing of raw products into foods and beverages, and in environmental monitoring and Control. •
Agricultural chemistry often aims at preserving or increasing the fertility of soil, maintaining or improving the agricultural yield, and improving the quality of the crop. • Agricultural chemistry includes the application of chemical fertilizer, chemical insecticides, and chemical fungicides, soil makeup, analysis of agricultural products, and nutritional needs of farm animals KNOWN AS FEEDS
Use of Manures •
Animal dung has been used for centuries as a fertilizer for farming, as it improves the soil structure (aggregation), so that it holds more nutrients and water, and becomes more fertile. • Animal manure also encourages soil microbial activity, which promotes the soil's trace mineral supply, improving plant nutrition. • It also contains some nitrogen and other nutrients that assist the growth of plants. The process of germination • Germination is the process by which plants, fungus and bacteria emerge from seeds and spores, and begin growth. •










The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm. • Germination is the growth of an embryonic plant contained within a seed; it results in the formation of the seedling. • In agriculture and gardening, the germination rate describes how many seeds of a particular plant species, variety or seed lot are likely to germinate. How leguminous plants obtain their Nitrogen • A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or a fruit of these specific plants. • Many legumes (alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, lentils, soybeans, peanuts and others) contain symbiotic bacteria called Rhizobia within root nodules of their root systems. • These bacteria have the special ability of fixing nitrogen from atmospheric, molecular nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3). • The chemical reaction is: N2 + 8 H+ + 8 e− 2 NH3 + H2 • Ammonia is then converted to another form, ammonium (NH4+), usable by (some) plants by the following reaction: NH3 + H+ NH4+ • This arrangement means that the root nodules are sources of nitrogen for legumes, making them relatively rich in plant proteins. Pests • Agricultural pests are insects that harm the crop or do damage to agricultura products. • Often animals are derided as pests as they cause damage to agriculture by feeding on crops or parasitizing livestock, such as codling moth on apples, or boll weevil on cotton. Pest •

Four major Pest categories: 1. Weeds, undesirable plant. 2. Invertebrates, such as Insects, Spiders and mites, Sow bugs, pill bugs, Snails, slugs, and mussels. 3. Vertebrates, such as: Birds, Snakes Fish, Rodents and other mammals. 4. Plant Diseases, Pathogens – living agents such as Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses, Nematodes, Phytoplasm and Non-living agents such as cold, heat, pollutants read agricultural pollution here , dog urine etc. •

Some insects feed directly on the plants, for example caterpillars eat leaves or damage fruits, and aphids suck juices from the plant with their beak-like mouthparts. • Other insects do damage because they can transmit plant diseases, for example whiteflies and aphids can transmit virus diseases from one plant to another. re


read disease transmission modes here
• Also the harvested crop can still be attacked by insects. All kind of storage insects such as the rice weevil and the rice moth can cause big damage to stored rice and other grains.


Integrated Pest Management (IPM) • A pest management philosophy that utilizes all suitable pest management techniques and methods to keep pest populations below economically injurious levels. • Why Practice IPM? 1. Maintains balanced ecosystems 2. Pesticides alone may be ineffective 3. Promotes a healthy environment 4. Saves money • Management


Strategies

1. Prevent or exclude 2. Eradicate 3. Reduce 4. No action. Components of IPM Monitoring: • Monitoring and tracking of existing populations allows for early detection of infestation and allows for better determining the quantity and timing of any insecticides that may be used. Trapping: •


Two strategies are to trap for monitoring purposes or to reduce the number of insects present. Capturing a large portion prevents injurious numbers from infesting the area. Mating Disruption: • Reduces the number of damaging larvae and adults that will be present in future generations.


IPM Methods

Pest free planting: • Assure plants are not infected prior to planting. This minimizes the change for introducing new pests to the area. Crop rotation: • Plant a different crop every other year to minimize adaptation of the pests. Physical barriers: • Cover plants with material to block the pests from the plants.


Natural predators:

• Introduce natural predators that will feed on the insects Trapping: • Attract and trap the pest to physically reduce their population in the affected area. Genetically modified plants: • They have resistance to the pest thus reducing damage that would be inflicted. Biological agents: • Introduce natural agents to the area that are harmful to the pests. Physical removal: • Remove and dispose of the pests. Ecological management: • Alter the environment to favor the population of natural predators and minimize that of the pest. Insecticides: •


Apply chemical agents. • This is normally considered one of the least preferred methods due to costs and environmental concerns.

don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION







88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING



118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

popular post of all time

new posts

Homogamy and cleistogamy as a condition necessary for self pollination to take place

Homogamy pollination process Definition of homogamy Homogamy refers to the ripening of the anthers and stigma of a bisexual flower at the ...