Privacy Policy

Privacy Policy for www.crop-agriculture.blogspot.com If you require any more information or have any questions about our privacy policy, please feel free to contact us by email at [email protected] At www.crops-agriculture.blogspot.com , the privacy of our visitors is of extreme importance to us. This privacy policy document outlines the types of personal information is received and collected by crops-agriculture.blogspot.com  and how it is used. Log Files Like many other Web sites, crops-agriculture.blogspot.com  makes use of log files. The information inside the log files includes internet protocol ( IP ) addresses, type of browser, Internet Service Provider ( ISP ), date/time stamp, referring/exit pages, and number of clicks to analyze trends, administer the site, track user’s movement around the site, and gather demographic information. IP addresses and other such information are not linked to any information that is personally identifiable. Cookies and Web Beacons www.crops-agriculture.blogspot.com  does use cookies to store information about visitors’ preferences, record user-specific information on which pages the user access or visit, customize Web page content based on visitors’ browser type or other information that the visitor sends via their browser. DoubleClick DART Cookie .:: Google, as a third party vendor, uses cookies to serve ads on www.crops-agriculture.blogspot.com . . Google’s use of the DART cookie enables it to serve ads to users based on their visit to www.crops-agriculture.blogspot.com  and other sites on the Internet. .:: Users may opt out of the use of the DART cookie by visiting the Google ad and content network privacy policy at the following URL - http://www.google.com/privacy_ads.html Some of our advertising partners may use cookies and web beacons on our site. Our advertising partners include.... Google Adsense These third-party ad servers or ad networks use technology to the advertisements and links that appear on www.crops-agriculture.blogspot.com  send directly to your browsers. They automatically receive your IP address when this occurs. Other technologies ( such as cookies, JavaScript, or Web Beacons ) may also be used by the third-party ad networks to measure the effectiveness of their advertisements and / or to personalize the advertising content that you see. www.crops-agriculture.blogspot.com  has no access to or control over these cookies that are used by third-party advertisers. You should consult the respective privacy policies of these third-party ad servers for more detailed information on their practices as well as for instructions about how to opt-out of certain practices. www.crops-agriculture.blogspot.com's privacy policy does not apply to, and we cannot control the activities of, such other advertisers or web sites. If you wish to disable cookies, you may do so through your individual browser options. More detailed information about cookie management with specific web browsers can be found at the browsers' respective websites. ________________________________________









TYPES OF PARASITES


ANIMAL DISEASES AND PARASITES

1. Identify the common diseases in the various types of farm animals.
2. State their symptoms, the methods of control and prevention
3. Identify common livestock parasites and give their effects on, farm animals.
4. Outline the control measures for each parasite.








11.1

What is a disease?

A disease may be defined as an abnormality in health. It is a deviation in the normal performance of the organism. 11.2 Types of disease of farm animals Diseases can be
classified according to their causes into:

(a) Pathogen diseases:
These are caused by living organisms, These organisms include:
(i) Viruses
(ii) Bacteria
(iii) Fungi
(iv) Protozoan
(v) Larger organisms such as ticks, lice, worms, etc.


(b) Nutritional deficiency diseases such as rickets, ketosis.


(c) Diseases caused by inanimate objects such as environmental chemicals.

11.3 How does disease get to animals?
This is through:
1. Droppings or faeces of infected animals

2. Contaminated feeds and water

3. Contact with infected animals

4. Air

5. Insects, feed or water troughs, etc.


How to identify a diseased/sick animal
The following signs help in identifying a sick or diseased animal:
1. Loss of appetite
2. Persistent coughing
3. Fever (high temperature)
4. Watery, bad smelling or blood stained faeces.
5. Inability to rise and sluggishness.
6. Rough skin/coat, and drooping of tail or wings in case of birds,
7. Discharges from the eyes, nostrils, mouth, or anus.
8. Emaciation
9. Death









11.5 Summary of some common diseases of farm animals
The table below shows a summary of common diseases of animals:
Name of disease
Causative agent
Animal affected Symptoms
Mode of transmission
Effective Control measures
Foot and Mouth disease
Virus
Cattle Sores on feet,
lips,
tongue,
cheek,
salivation and foaming
, inability to eat,
weakness,
lameness and death Transmitted by contact with infected animals or by contact with contaminated feed materials from diseased herd.
Serious loss of animals through death.
Vaccination and Isolation of diseased animals from healthy ones.
Bury dead animals deeply. No treatment.


Rinderpest Virus of Cattle,
High fever, blood stained shooting diarrhea.
Difficult breathing and animals grind their teeth
Death rate is very high Through contamination with infected animal and eating contaminated food.
Death of animals. Vaccination. Isolation of diseased animals. Kill and bury deeply infected animals. No treatment.
READ MY POST ON ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Newcastle disease (NCD)
Virus
Poultry Drop in feed intake,
severe respiratory difficulties.
Neck twisting and paralysis of the legs or wings.
Laying of soft shelled eggs, water greenish diarrhea
Through contact with faeces of infected birds, nasal and oral discharge from diseased birds and materials, contaminated by the virus.
Low egg production in layers. High mortality rate resulting in loss of birds.

Routine vaccination using freeze dried NCD vaccine given either intraoccular in young birds or inter-muscular in older birds. Good sanitary practices. No treatment.


BRUCELLOSIS
(Contagious abortion) Bacteria (Brucclla Abortus)
Cattle Irritation and catarrh conditions in the womb of the pregnant cow.
This results in the expulsion of foetus of about the 5th – 7th month of pregnancy as still birth Contacted when animals feed on contaminated pasture or other feed.

Also servicing by infected bull and flies that have rested on the foetus of affected animals can transmit the disease,
Loss of foetus.
Reduction in the level of an animal’s production.
The disease is zoonotic.

That is can affect human beings.

Vaccination.
Report any occurrence to the nearest veterinary officer.


ANTHRAX
Bacteria (Baccilus anthracis) Cattle, sheep and goat In acute cases,
the first sign is death.

In less acute cases, there may be blood stained discharges from nostrils and mouth and swelling in the neck, genitals and lower abdomen.
Through contact with infected animals and their products Loss of animals.

Note:
Do not open carcass of infected animals as the disease is also zoonotic.

Vaccination.
Burn or bury deeply any diseased animal.
Disinfect properly after disease has occurred in a herd.

TUBERCULOSIS
Bacteria (Mycobacterium spp) Occurs in most animals, Infects lungs resulting in persistent cough, emaciation, loss of condition and finally death Contact with infect animal.

It can also be through contact with discharge or sputum from cough.
Milk infected with the bacterium can equally transmit the disease. Lowers productivity and also results in loss of animals.
The disease is also zoonotic.
No treatment. Kill and bury deeply infected animal.
Routine checking by a veterinary doctor is important. Good hygiene. Vaccination.

FOWL TYPHOID Bacteria

Poultry Birds become dull and pass out yellowish diarrhea
Contact with the dropping from infected bird or contaminated food, water or soil. Loss of birds Proper sanitation.

Vaccination.
Contact a veterinary doctor WHO SPECIALIZES IN TREATING FARM ANIMALS








CHRONIC RESPIRATORY DISEASE (CRD)

Not yet identified. Could be bacteria or virus
Poultry Nasal discharges, rattling sound during breathing, loss in weight.
Through contact with infected birds and their nasal discharges Lowers production in birds and also results in loss of birds Good sanitation.
Avoid use of saw dust as litter. Use antibiotics. Consult a veterinary doctor or officer


RINGWORM (Favus in Poultry) Fungus

All animals and birds Lesions or scab on the skin of the animals, usually irritating and causing the falling off of the animal’s hair.
In Poultry, the disease is common on the combs and wattles producing grey patches
The fungus is usually spread from infected to healthy one through contact Results in loss of hair in animals resulting in low market value due to poor appearance of the animal Maintain clean conditions. Isolate infected animals and treat with iodine as surface dressing

TRYPANOSOMIASIS Protozoa (Trypanosoma spp)
Mainly Cattle. Also attacks goat and sheep Intermittent fever.
General weakness. Hair on tail often pull out.
General loss of condition and finally death.

Transmitted by tse-tse flies (Glossina spp) by biting infected animal, sucking the protozoan and injecting it into the blood of a healthy animal.
Drop in level of animal production,
death
Use drugs e.g. trypanosomide. Rear resistant breeds.
Also use chemical to kill the flies and clear bushes around animals pens to ward off the flies COCCIDIOSIS Protozoa (Coccidia Parasite-E imeria spp) Poultry Blood stained watery droppings. Ruffled feathers.

Loss of weight due to fall in feed intake. Death of birds. By taking contaminated food and water from the droppings of infected birds Drop in egg production.
Death of birds, Maintain high hygienic conditions.
Disinfect poultry house before stoking.

Use cocci-diostats e.g. Sulphamethazone added to drinking water.


SCABIES Fungus

Cattle, Goat, Sheep
It causes very itchy little lumps that can appear all over the body of the animal.
It is very common on the udder of female animals and the genitals of the male. Scratching can cause infection, producing sores with pus and some times swollen lymph nodes or fever.

Spreads by touching the affected parts of animals or by bedding. Causes loss of animal hair and destruction of skin. Could affect level of production. Maintain high level of cleanliness in the animal houses. Dip animals in solution.

Other diseases include
(a) Rabbit coccidiosis:
This is caused by a protozoan. The signs of the disease include blood-stained faeces and diarrhea.
Prevention is by separating young animals from old ones.
Diseased rabbits should also be separated.

Rabbit hutches should be cleared always.
Treatment is by the use of sulphonamide drugs.

(b) Swine fever or hog cholera: This affects pig and is caused by virus.
The virus is usually present in faeces and blood. The signs are shivering, loss of appetite, vomiting, fever and diarrhoea. 11.6




Animal Parasites

A parasite is a living organism which establishes itself on or in another organism called host, from which it gets its food. parasites are found inside the host. These are called Endo-Parasites, e.g. Tape Worm, Round Worm, Liver Fluke and

Trypanosome.
Those found on the body of animals are called Ecto-Parasites. e.g. Ticks, Lice, Mites. Some parasites of farm animals include:


1. Ecto-parasites

(a) Ticks:
These are eight-legged organisms belonging to the group arachnida. They feed on farm animals by sucking blood from them. Animals mostly affected by ticks are cattle, sheep, goats and dogs.

The effects of ticks on the farm animals include
(a) Anaemia
(b) Irritation leading to sore formation on the skin
(c) Destruction of skin
(d) Transmission of diseases such as red water, etc.
DIAGRAM Figure 2.11.la: Ticks, DIAGRAM Figure2.11b: Lice DIAGRAM Figure 2.11.c


Tsetse fly (transmits typanesomes by biting) Ticks can be controlled by:
(i) using clean environment for animals
(ii) practicing rotational grazing
(iii) spraying pens and animals with chemicals such as malathion.

(b) Lice:
These are small wingless insects which live under the hair of animals or feathers of birds. They also feed by sucking blood from animals, just like the ticks.
Lice cause irritation which results in sore formation and creates avenues for disease agents. They also cause anaemia. Lice can be controlled by:
(i) maintaining clean environment
(ii) avoiding over crowding
(iii) dipping animals in water containing chemicals such, as landline and DOT.




2. End-oparasites

(a) Roundworms: These are elongated, cylindrical, smooth-skinned, whitish worms, which are pointed at both ends. They are common parasites of cattle, pigs, and poultry.
Roundworm is found in the animal's intestine where it gets its food.
This parasite deprives the animals of their food thereby reducing their weight.

It can also result in slow growth and loss of appetite. The parasite could cause stomach disorders such as diarrhea, vomiting, etc.

Control is by:
(i) maintaining good hygienic conditions in animal environment, and

(ii) use of de-wormers such as piperazine.




(b) Liver fluke:
This is a short flat worm which attacks mainly cattle and sheep".

It sucks blood from the animal thereby causing emaciation and reducing productivity.
It may lead to the death of the animal. Control can be achieved by:

(i) the use of appropriate drugs

(ii) supplying clean drinking water, and

(iii) destruction of snails on grazing land because they help to harbor the pest DIAGRAM Figure 2.1 1.2a:

Roundworms DIAGRAM Figure 2.1 1.2b:


Liver Fluke DIAGRAM Figure 2.1 1.2c:


Tapeworm (i) Tapeworm: This is a long segmented flat worm which looks like the tape of the tailor.

The parasite mainly affects pigs and cattle.
The tapeworm possesses hooks and suckers in the scolex and these help to attach the parasite to its host while the suckers assist in feeding. In animals, the presence of tapeworm in tissues or organs could cause some physiological disorders, such as anaemia, abdominal pains, weakness and loss of weight.

The parasite can be controlled by:
(i) maintaining good hygienic conditions
(ii) use of drugs (iii) proper cooking of meat before eating by man which serves as primary host.
General methods of controlling animal diseases Diseases can be:
(i) Prevented, and (ii) Controlled.

(a) Prevention:
This involves the following practices:
(a) Good sanitation/hygiene
(b) Good feeding .
(c) Vaccination
(d) Quarantine
(e) Breeding
(f) Separation
(g) Rotational grazing.


(b) Control: This involves;

(i) Treatments The use of drugs which may be in the form of powder, liquid or solids, given in ` water, feeds or as injections. (

ii) Destruction of diseased animals.
They arc either burnt or buried.


LISTS OF ANIMAL PARASITES

1. CYMOTHOA EXIGUA
2. BED BUGS
3. CULICIDAE -(MOSQUITOES)
4. CALYPTRA -(VAMPIRE MOTHS)
5. TSETSE FLY
6. LIPOPTENA
7. MELOPHAGUS OVINUS, (SHEEP) AND RELATIVES
8. OESTRIDAE (BOT FLIES)
9. PHLEBOTOMINAE (SAND FLIES)
10. PHTHIRAPTERA (LICE)
11. BODY LOUSE
12. CRAB LOUSE
13. HEAD LOUSE
14. SIPHONAPTERA (FLEAS)
15. TABANIDAE (HORSE FLIES)
16. TANTULOCARIDA
17. TRIATOMINAE
18. PEA CRAB
19. SACCULINA
20. AMOEBIASIS
21. ACANTHAMOEBA
22. BALAMUTHIA MANDRILLARIS
23. GIARDIA
24. CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS
25. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM
26. TOXOPLASMA GONDII
27. LEISHMANIA
28. PLASMODIUM - CAUSES THE FATAL DISEASE LIKE MALARIA
29. BABESIA
30. ACANTHOCEPHALA
31. ASCARIASIS (ROUNDWORMS)
32. CITATION NEEDED---
33. “CESTODA (TAPEWORMS)----TAENIA SAGINATA (HUMAN BEEF TAPEWORM), TAENIA SOLIUM (HUMAN PORK TAPEWORM), DIPHYLLOBOTHRIUM LATUM (FISH TAPEWORM) AND ECHINOCOCCOSIS (HYDATID TAPEWORM)”
34. CLONORCHIS SINENSIS (THE CHINESE LIVER FLUKE)
35. DRACUNCULUS MEDINENSIS (GUINEA WORM)
36. ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS (PINWORM)
37. FILARIASIS
38. HOOKWORM
39. ONCHOCERCIASIS (RIVER BLINDNESS)
40. SCHISTOSOMIASIS
41. STRONGYLOIDES STERCORALIS
42. TOXOCARA CANIS (DOG ROUNDWORM)
43. TRICHINELLA

44. ANIMALS THAT HAVE BEEN INFESTED WITH PARASITES SHOW VARIOUS SIGNS WHICH MAKE IT EASIER TO DIAGNOSE PARASITISM IN ANIMALS.
45. DIARRHEA:
46. THIS IS ONE OF THE MOST COMMON SYMPTOMS, AND CAN EASILY BY THE PRESENCE OF A DIRTY ANIMAL TAIL ANUS FREQUENTLY STAINED WITH DROPPINGS







1. WEIGHT LOSS: THE WORK OF THE PARASITES IS TO FEED ON THE HOST. WHEN PARASITES FEED ON ANIMALS, ANIMALS GET DEPRIVED OF THE ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS THAT ARE REQUIRED FOR PROPER FUNCTIONING OF THE BODY. BESIDES, ANIMALS THAT ARE INFESTED WITH PARASITES TEND TO EAT LESS DUE TO THE DAMAGE CAUSED BY THESE PARASITES IN THE ANIMA'S BODY.

2. ROUGH HAIRS:

“THE PRESENCE OF COARSE HAIR IS AN INDICATION THAT THE ANIMAL ISN'T GETTING ENOUGH NUTRIENTS. NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES LEAD TO DRYING OF THE ANIMAL SKIN AND LOSS OF HAIR” WHENEVER A FARMER NOTICES ANY CHANGE IN THE LOOK OF THE ANIMAL BODILY, HE SHOULD PROMPLY SEEK THE SERVICES OF VERTIRINARY DOCTOR

3. FAST BREATHING:
THIS IS MOSTLY CAUSED BY LUNGWORMS. THIS TYPES OF PARASITE OR WORMS ATTACKS THE LUNGS DIRECTLY THEREBY CAUSING THE LUNGS OF AN INFECTED ANIMAL TO MALFUNCTION. ANIMALS WILL BREATHE FASTER SO THAT THEY CAN GET ENOUGH OXYGEN INTO THEIR LUNGS.

4. SEVERE COUGHING:
THIS IS MAINLY CAUSED BY IRRITATION OF THE DAMAGED BRONCHIOLES. THIS IS EASILY RECOGNIZED AS THE INFECTED ANIMAL WILL BE GROWING THINNER BY THE DAY. REDDISH EYES IS ALSO ANOTHER SYMPTOM

5. ANEMIA:
ANEMIA IN ANIMALS IS CAN BE EASILY IDENTIFIED BY THE PRESENCE OF WHITE EYES AND THE GUMS DUE TO EXCESSIVE BLOOD LOSS. GENERAL WEAKNESS AND CONTINUOUS SLEEPING SYNDROME

PREVENTIVE MEASURES

6. THE MAIN AIM OF PREVENTION IS TO REDUCE THE ANIMAL'S EXPOSURE TO PARASITES BY ENSURING THAT THEY ARE FEEDING ON CLEAN PLACES, AVOIDING OVERCROWDING OF PENS AND ALSO REGULAR DE-WORMING OF THE ANIMALS.
7. IT IS ALSO IMPORTANT TO MAKE SURE THAT YOU PROVIDE THE RIGHT NUTRIENTS TO THE ANIMALS THAT WILL ENABLE THEM TO BOOST IMMUNITY AND HENCE FIGHT THESE PARASITES.

YOU CAN HELP US TO SHARE THIS CONTENT IF YOU FIND OUR ARTICLE USEFUL











don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below
Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST






126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

types of feeds in agriculture



Types of feeds


Rations are classified according to the purpose they serve in the animals body. They include in:
1. Maintenance Ration
This is the food given to animals to keep their live - weight constant.
The ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to carry on its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood circulation supplement and sleeping ration.

2. Production Ration Ration supplied over and above that needed for maintenance purposes.

The ration is specially formulated to of the following purposes: reproduction, work, fattening and so on. Example is layers mash in poultry.

3. Balanced Ration This is the ration that contains all the essential nutrients needed by the body in the correct proportion. The composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins well as water.







Malnutrition


Malnutrition results when a ration does not provide all (read more here= the essential food nutrients in the correct proportion. That is both in quality and quantity.)

This could result if the food In the animal is very low in calorific value and as a result only little energy is supplied.

This condition is called marasmus.


Alternatively the foot may be very rich in one nutrients such as carbohydrate and and poor in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.


Malnutrition,

as in improper feeding, results in nutrients deficiency diseases such as

rickets (poor formation of limbs) and ketosis (low level of blood glucose).
Malnutrition may lead to:

(i) retarded growth in the a

(ii) low production

(iii) physical deformities

(iv) ill-health

(v) death.


Feeding Equipment for Animals


1. Feeding Troughs

DIAGRAM Figure 2.9. la:



Wooden Feeding Trough

DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.1 b:



Aluminum Feeding Trough

Prepared feeds are put inside for the animal

1. Water Troughs

DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.2a:

Plastic Water Trough used for Chicks

DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.2b:

4 ½ litres water trough made of aluminum used by older birds,









Types of Feeds
Generally feeds may be classified into:
(a) Concentrates
(b) Succulents
(c) Roughages
(d) Supplements and additives.

1. Concentrates
These are made up of:
1. Cereals such as maize, rice, millet, sorghum, etc. These are also referred to as basal feeds or energy concentrates.
2. Leguminous seeds such as groundnut cake, soya beans cake, and others such as palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake. These are plant protein concentrate 3. Fish meal and blood meal. These are animal protein concentrates.

Concentrates are easily digested by farm animals.

Succulent Feeds
These consist of:
1. Roots and tubers such as yam cassava, coco-yam, etc
2. Vegetables such as water leaf and shoko
3. forages such as pasture grasses
4. silage made from green fresh grass
5. Cane molasses mainly from sugar cane

Succulent feeds are very high in water and are easily digested by lin in animals. Most green crops can be used as succulent feeds when they are young.

3. Roughages
These consist of dry grasses which usually add bulk to animal feeds. Examples are Hay, Straw.
Hay: This is grass cut. dried and preserved for animals future use.


4. Supplements and Additives
Feed supplements are added to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients which might be lacking in the main feed. The following could serve as feed supplements:

1. Cotton seed cake
2. Soya bean meal
3. Groundnut cake
4. Fish meal
5. Bone meal
6. Egg shell meal
7. Oyster shell meal
8. Salt-licks
9. Limestone
10. Vitamins


The feed additives include:
1. Antibiotics
2. Amino acids
3. Hormones and so on.
These help to stabilize the feeds as well as improve on the quality and storability of the feeds.

9.2 Feed Nutrients
Many elements in varying combinations make up feed nutrients. These elements include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, Florine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and caromium.


follow this link for details on types of feeds

Based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal feeds can be classified into six groups, viz:
1. Carbohydrate
Supplying energy, e.g cereals, roots and tubers, etc
2. Proteins
Needed for growth and repair of worn out tissues, e.g legumes such as soya bean, cotton seed, groundnut cakes, etc
3. Fats
Supplying energy and keeping the body temperature under control e.g. milk, coconuts, tubers, etc.
4. Minerals
They helo to carry out vital body function. Examples are: calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so on.

5. Vitamins
They help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins A, B,C,D, E and K
6. Water
This is a constituent of body fluid. It helps to regular body temperature, lubricate joints, transport body materials and breakdown (digestions) of food.

9.3 Types of Ration
Rations are classified according to the purpose they serve in the animals body. They include in:
1. Maintenance Ration
This is the food given to animals to keep their live - weight constant. The ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to carry on its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood circulation treatment and sleeping ration.
2. Balanced Ration
Ration supplied over and above that needed for maintenance purposes. The ration is specially formulated to of the following purposes: reproduction, work, fattening and so on. Example is layers mash in poultry.
3. Balanced Ration
This is the ration that contains all the essential nutrients needed by the body in the correct proportion. The composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins well as water.

Malnutrition: Malnutrition results when a ration does not provide all the essential food nutrients in the correct proportion. That is both in quality and quantity. This could result if the food In the animal is very low in calorific value and as a result only little energy is supplied. This condition is called marasmus.
Alternatively the foot may be very rich in one nutrients such as carbohydrate and and poor in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.


Malnutrition, as in improper feeding, results in nutrients deficiency diseases such as rickets (poor formation of limbs) and ketosis (low level of blood glucose). Malnutrition may lead to:
(i) retarded growth in the a
(ii) low production
(iii) physical deformities
(iv) ill-health
(v) death.
ROUGHAGES




1. List three main types of feeds ad give two examples of each.



2. Classify animal feeds based on the nutrients they supply



3. Explain the following terms:

i. Maintenance ration

ii. Production ration


4. Give four effects of malnutrition in farm animals. 5. List ten feed supplements and additives that a farmer, could add to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients that may be lacking.

Types of Feeds Generally feeds may be classified into: (a) Concentrates (b) Succulents (c) Roughages (d) Supplements and additives. 1. Concentrates These are made up of: 1. Cereals such as maize, rice, millet, sorghum, etc. These are also referred to as basal feeds or energy concentrates. 2. Leguminous seeds such as groundnut cake, soya beans cake, and others such as palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake. These are plant protein concentrates. 3. Fish meal and blood meal. These are animal protein concentrates. Concentrates are easily digested by farm animals. Succulent Feeds These consist of: 1. Roots and tubers such as yam cassava, cocoyam,
2. Vegetables such as water leaf and shoko 3. forages such as pasture grasses 4. silage made from green fresh grass 5. Cane molasses mainly from sugar cane Succulent feeds'are very high in water and are easily digested by lin in animals. Most green crops can be used as succulent feeds when they are young. 3. Roughages These consist of dry grasses which usually add bulk to animal feeds. Examples are Hay, Straw. Hay: This is grass cut. dried and preserved for animals future use. 4. Supplements and Additives Feed supplements are added to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients which might be lacking in the main feed. The follow ing could serve as feed supplements:


1. Cotton seed cake 2. Soya bean meal 3. Groundnut cake 4. Fish meal 5. Bone meal 6. Egg shell meal 7. Oyster shell meal 8. Saltlicks 9. Limestone 10. Vitamins



The feed additives include:
1. Antibiotics 2. Amino acids 3. Hormones and so on.

These help to stabilize the feeds as well as improve on the quality and storability of the feeds. 9.2 Feed Nutrients Many elements in varying combinations make up feed nutrients. These elements include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, flourine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and caromium. Based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal feeds can be classified into six groups, viz: 1. Carbonhydrates Supplying energy, e.g cereals, roots and tubers,

2. Proteins Needed for growth and repair of worn out tissues, e.g legumes such as soya bean, cotton seed, groundnut cakes, etc 3. Fats Supplying energy and keeping the body temperature under control e.g. milk, coconuts, tubers, etc. 4. Minerals They help to carry out vital body function. Examples are: calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so on. 5. Vitamins They help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins A, B,C,D, E and K 6.


Water This is a constituent of body fluid. It helps to regular body temperature, lubricate joints, transport body materials and breakdown (digestions) of food. 9.3 Types of Ration Rations are classified according to the purpose they serve in the animals body. They include in: 1. Maintenance Ration This is the food given to animals to keep their live - weight constant. The ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to carry on its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood circulation imnement and sleeping ration.

2. Balanced Ration Ration supplied over and above that needed for maintenance purposes. The ration is specially formulated to of the following purposes: reproduction, work, fattening and so on. Example is layers mash in poultry

3. Balanced Ration

This is the ration that contains all the essential nutrients needed by the body in the correct proportion. The composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins well as water. Malnutrition: Malnutrition results when a ration does not provide all the essential food nutrients in the correct proportion. That is both in quality and quantity. This could result if the food In the animal is very low in calorific value and as a result only little energy is supplied. This condition is called marasmus.


Alternatively the foot may be very rich in one nutrients such as carbonhydrate and and poor in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins. Malnutrition, as in improper feeding, results in nutrients deficiency diseases such as rickets (poor formation of limbs) and ketosis (low level of blood glucose).



Malnutrition may lead to:
(i) retarded growth in the a
(ii) low production
(iii) physical deformities
(iv) ill-health (v) death.

9.4 Feeding Equipment for Animals 1. Feeding Troughs DIAGRAM Figure 2.9. la: Wooden Feeding Trou DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.1 b: Aluminium Feeding Trough Prepared feeds are put inside for the animal 2. Water Troughs DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.2a: Plastic Water Trough used for Chicks DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.2b: 4 ½ litres water trough made of aluminium used by older birds, STUDY QUESTIONS 1. List three main types of feeds ad give two examples of each. 2. Classify animal feeds based on the nutrients they supply 3. Explain the following terms: i. Maintenance ration ii. Production ration 4. Give four effects of malnutrition in farm animals. 5. List ten feed supplements and additives that a farmer, could add to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients that ma\ be lacking.

don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS

41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION


TYPES OF CROPPING SYSTEMS



CROPPING SYSTEMS

1. Identify and explain the different cropping systems.
2. Give the advantages and disadvantages of each cropping system
The way a farmland is cropped varies from one farmer to the other system adopted may depend on the available farmland, the type of agriculture (whether subsistence or commercial), the need of the farmer and so on. It is worthy of note that farming practice is not static as such it is evolving. So in this article we shall consider the most widely practiced farming system the world over
The following are the cropping systems commonly practiced by farmers.
1 Mono-cropping

This is the growing of only one type of crop (such as maize) on a piece of land. It could be for a season or for several years as in plantation farming. The system is also termed sole cropping. Most often this type of farming practice involves mechanization.


Advantages

1. It makes possible the use of machines in farm operation.

2. It leads higher productivity per hectare,

3. It also leads to specialization among farmers.

4. The control of weeds is easy. This is because herbicides can be used

5. It employs more labor thereby leading to greater harvest

Disadvantages

1. It is risky because crop failure arising from pest, diseases or weather conditions will result in total loss of income to the farmer for that year.

2. The system encourages the rapid spread of pests and diseases on the farm.

3. Labour may not be efficiently utilized throughout the year.

4. It does not afford the farmer a variety of crops.

5. Most often it requires high capital investment

6. It can’t be practiced within an area where there is community farming


2. Mixed cropping

This is also called multiple cropping because it involves the planting of more than one type of crop on the same farmland in one planting season. It is very common under subsistence agriculture and in are where farmlands are limited. Under mixed cropping, the farmer could practice any of the following:







(a) Inter-planting: This is the growing of two crops together on the same land. The crop which was planted first is also harvest first while the one planted last remains on the plot to harvested later. An example is the growing of maize, cassava, groundnut, melon, yam and okra together on the same piece of land in one planting season. Maize, which is usually planted first, is also harvest first. Maize is therefore said to be inter-planted with yam.

(b) Inter-cropping: This is when two crops are grown together with the crop planted last being harvested first. Usually the c planted last has shorter lifespan than the one planted first, example is the planting of melon after yam has been plant The melon will be harvested first while the yam continues on plot. Yam is therefore said to be intercropped with melon.



Advantages

1. It affords the farmer a variety of crops.

2. It serves as insurance against the failure of one type of crops.

3. It minimizes the spread of diseases and pests on the farm.

4. It enables the crops to make efficient use of soil nutrients.

5. The ensures efficient utilization of labour throughout the year.



Disadvantages

1. It does not encourage the use of machines on the farm.

2. It may lead to rapid exhaustion of soil nutrients if legumes not included.

3. It is labour intensive.

4. Pests and disease agents may persist on the farmland. This is because there are always food and alternative hosts for them.

3. Continuous cropping

This is the practice of putting a farmland under cultivation continuously that is from year to year. It may take any of form: this type of farming practice usually lead to soil loss of nutrients, becoming acidic

(a) Annual cropping: Planting annual crops which are replaced after harvesting. This means the land is cleared, tilled and cropped every season. This is common where land is scarce. this type of farming is mostly practiced in the southern parts of Nigeria

(b) Permanent cropping: This involves planting and maintaining the crops, usually permanent crops continuously on the farm land, it usually in plantations.



Advantages

1 It reduces the cost of land preparation after the initial clearing and tilling.

2 It enables the farmer to construct permanent structures such as storage structures on the farm.

3 It can be practiced where land is scarce.



Disadvantages

1. The fertility of the soil is easily exhausted.

2. It leads to destruction of soil structure.

3. It encourages soil erosion.

4. Yields me normally reduced with increasing years of cropping.

5. It encourages build-up of crop pests and disease agents.

6. It required high amount of money to keep the land fertile and productive.



4. Crop Rotation

This involves the planting of different types of crop in different plots on a farmland during one season; and at the beginning of the next season, the crops are changed from their respective plots, while following a definite order or sequence. The system combines mixed cropping with continuous cropping and is mainly practiced by institutions of learning.

For crop rotation to be successful, certain principles must be followed



Principles of Crop Rotation

(a) The same type of crop should not be allowed to follow each other on the same plot. For example, maize should not follow maize.

(b) Crops that belong to the same group should not also follow each other on the same plot, e.g. cassava should not follow yam, or to follow maize.

(c) Crops that have deep roots like yam and cassava, should be followed with those that have shallow roots such as maize and groundnut.

(d) Crops that consume a lot of nitrogen such as the-cereal group should be followed by those that add nitrogen to the soil such as maize and the legume group,

(e) Crops likely to be affected by the same disease or pest should not follow each other on the same plot. The number of crops involved in the rotation will determine the type of rotation. Therefore, there could be a two-year, three-year, or tour-year crop rotation.



How to Design a Four-Year Crop Rotation

(a) Divide the farmland into four plots.

(b) Choose the crops to cultivate.

(c) Plant one crop on each plot, making sure the principles guiding the adoption of the system are adhered to.



(4) At the end of one season, shift the crop from plot B to A, C to B, D to C and A to D

(5) Follow this sequence until the fourth year is reached.










Year

Plot A

Plot B

Plot C

Plot D

1

Maize

Cassava

Groundnut

Yam and Melon

2

Cassava

Groundnut

Yam and Melon

Maize

3

Groundnut

Yam and Melon

Maize

Cassava

4

Yam and Melon

Maize

Cassava

Groundnut



Figure 3.2.1: A Four-Year Crop Rotation,

Advantages

1. It helps to maintain soil fertility.

2. It makes efficient use of soil nutrients.

3. The farmer has access to a variety of crops.

4. It minimize the spread of diseases and pests and helps to check weeds

5. It reduces soil erosion.

6. It leads to efficient utilization of labour.

7. It is a good practice where land is scarce.



Disadvantages

1. It is labour intensive.

2. Crop yields may decrease with years except additional manures or fertilizers are applied.

3. It leads to destruction of soil structure which may facilitate soil erosion.



I want to re-iterate here that the various cropping systems listed in this article are not the final list of the various farming practices, so as read this article and there remembered any not listed here please feel free to leave your comment

don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.









HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS

41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION




LEACHING AND LIMING IN AGRICULTURE



WHAT IS LEACHING?

Leaching is the loss or extraction of certain materials from a carrier into a liquid (usually, but not always a solvent). and may refer to: Leaching (agriculture), the loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil; or applying a small amount of excess irrigation to avoid soil salinity. normal;">COMMON REMEDY OF LEACHING IN AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IS THE APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS.<



WHAT IS LIMING

Liming is the addition of wood ash or Calcium compound to the soil in other to reduce soil acidity….which is condition of too much Hydrogen present in the soil.
The practice of liming is done especially in humid climates where the soils are generally acidic because of too much leaching caused by heavy rainfall

WHAT IS LEACHING?

Leaching is defined as the washing down or downward movement of soil nutrients beyond the reach of the roots of crop plant.










This is usually as a result of too much rainfall.
Leaching is more on sandy soil than any other type of soil. On the savannah parts of west Africa, Leaching is not so much due to low rate of rainfall, however the rate of rainfall is much more greater than the rate of evaporation.
This means that water remains in the soil for a longer period of time thereby causing fast chemical leaching.
COMMON REMEDY OF LEACHING IN AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IS THE APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS.

don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below

Leaching in plants can happen in potting containers. Once the chemicals have drained down through the soil, they can leave a crust of soluble salts on the surface, which makes it hard for the soil to absorb water. Removing this crust with water is the other type of leaching.

Read more at Gardening Know How: Types Of Leaching: Info On Leaching Garden Plants And Soil
HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST

40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON









89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT

135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS

THE IMPORTANCE OF LIVING ORGANISM IN SOIL FORMATION



Importance of living organisms in the formation of soil

Not all living organism play a part in soil formation, so here are the few major list of the most important ones the directly have massive impart in the process of soil formation through a process called weathering.
Worms and insects like the termite helps in breaking down and decomposition of organic matter.
Human activities on the rocks in the forms of mining, drilling and other quarry activities like making roads also affects the rate of soil formation.
Construction of roads by humans like in the farm, therefore leads to breaking of rocks.
The roots of trees growing on top of rocks causes the rock to crack or break gradually to form soil.









It is worthy of note that the process of soil formation takes a gradual and precise direction which happens over time which invariably means that time is also a factor of soil formation.
A long period of time allows for the development of mature soils whereas a short period of time allows for immature formation of soil.
It will take some time for a small pieces of rock to break into grains of soil. And it will also take time for living organisms like plants and animals to decay, turn humus and become part of the soil.

EFFECTS OF ORGANISMS ON SOIL FORMATION
SOIL ORGANISMS PLAY A VITAL ROLE IN THE DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC MATTER AND SUBSEQUENT SOIL HUMUS FORMATION. WHEN PLANTS DIE, LEAVES ARE DROPPED ONTO THE SOIL SURFACE WHERE MICRO ORGANISMS CAN “ATTACK” AND DECAY PLANT TISSUE

THE ORGANIC MATTER IS USED AS AN ENERGY SOURCE FOR MICRO ORGANISMS, INCREASING THEIR POPULATION IN THE SOIL. THESE ORGANISMS UTILIZE EASILY DIGESTIBLE MATERIALS (LIKE SIMPLE SUGARS AND CARBOHYDRATES) FOUND IN THE PLANT MATERIAL, LEAVING MORE RESISTANT MATERIALS (SUCH AS FATS AND WAXES) BEHIND.

THE MATERIAL LEFT BEHIND IS NOT EASILY DECOMPOSED; IT COMPRISES THE HUMUS FOUND IN SOIL. HUMUS ACTS AS A BINDING AGENT, ESSENTIALLY HOLDING PRIMARY SOIL PARTICLES (SAND, SILT, CLAY) TOGETHER TO FORM SECONDARY AGGREGATES ’. THESE ORGANISMS AND THE HUMUS THEY HELP CREATE AID IN THE SOIL DEVELOPMENT AND THE FORMATION OF SOIL HORIZONS.

THE EFFECT SOIL ORGANISMS, SPECIFICALLY VEGETATION, HAVE ON THE CREATION OF HUMUS AND SOIL FORMATION.
THE FIGURE SHOWS THE PERCENTAGE OF HUMUS CONTENT TENDS TO BE GREATER IN GRASSLAND SOILS, AS COMPARED TO CONIFEROUS FOREST SOILS. THE REASON BEHIND THIS OBSERVATION IS QUITE SIMPLE; DEAD GRASSLAND PLANTS TEND TO HAVE A SOMEWHAT NEUTRAL PH AS COMPARED TO FOREST NEEDLES, WHICH TEND TO HAVE AN ACIDIC PH.

THE RELATIVELY BASIC PH OF THE GRASSLAND PLANTS MAKES THEM EASIER FOR MICROORGANISMS TO DEGRADE AND TURN INTO HUMUS. OPPOSITELY, NEEDLES ARE MORE DIFFICULT FOR MICROORGANISMS TO DEGRADE; THUS, THE HUMUS CONTENT OF CONIFEROUS FOREST SOILS TENDS TO BE LESS THAN GRASSLAND SOILS. THE ACIDIC NATURE OF THE FOREST LITTER, HOWEVER, CAUSES ACIDS TO FLOW THROUGH THE SOIL PROFILE AND HELP DEVELOP HORIZONS QUICKER THAN A GRASSLAND SOIL. THE ACIDS CAN DISSOLVE SOIL MATERIALS AND REDEPOSIT THEM DEEPER IN THE SOIL, WHICH HELPS TO MORE QUICKLY CREATE HORIZONS.
THAT HUMUS CONTENT DECREASES WITH SOIL DEPTH. THIS MAKES SENSE, BECAUSE HUMUS IS DERIVED FROM DECAYING PLANT MATERIAL WHICH ORIGINATES AT OR NEAR THE SOIL SURFACE.








don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION






112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE









126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

popular post of all time

new posts

diseases caused by microorganisms in animals, like bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoa

there are so many types of diseases that are caused by microorganisms in animals these diseases are harmful to the well-being of every anima...