THE IMPORTANCE OF LIVING ORGANISM IN SOIL FORMATION


Importance of living organisms in the formation of soil


Not all living organism play a part in soil formation, so here are the few major list of the most important ones the directly have massive impart in the process of soil formation through a process called weathering.
Worms and insects like the termite helps in breaking down and decomposition of organic matter.
Human activities on the rocks in the forms of mining, drilling and other quarry activities like making roads also affects the rate of soil formation.
Construction of roads by humans therefore leads to breaking of rocks.
The roots of trees growing on top of rocks causes the rock to crack or break gradually to form soil.




It is worthy of note that the process of soil formation takes a gradual and precise direction which happens over time which invariably means that time is also a factor of soil formation.
A long period of time allows for the development of mature soils whereas a short period of time allows for immature formation of soil.
It will take some time for a small pieces of rock to break into grains of soil. And it will also take time for living organisms like plants and animals to decay, turn humus and become part of the soil.



EFFECTS OF ORGANISMS ON SOIL FORMATION
SOIL ORGANISMS PLAY A VITAL ROLE IN THE DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC MATTER AND SUBSEQUENT SOIL HUMUS FORMATION. WHEN PLANTS DIE, LEAVES ARE DROPPED ONTO THE SOIL SURFACE WHERE MICROORGANISMS CAN “ATTACK” AND DECAY PLANT TISSUE.

THE ORGANIC MATTER IS USED AS AN ENERGY SOURCE FOR MICROORGANISMS, INCREASING THEIR POPULATION IN THE SOIL. THESE ORGANISMS UTILIZE EASILY DIGESTIBLE MATERIALS (LIKE SIMPLE SUGARS AND CARBOHYDRATES) FOUND IN THE PLANT MATERIAL, LEAVING MORE RESISTANT MATERIALS (SUCH AS FATS AND WAXES) BEHIND.

THE MATERIAL LEFT BEHIND IS NOT EASILY DECOMPOSED; IT COMPRISES THE HUMUS FOUND IN SOIL. HUMUS ACTS AS A BINDING AGENT, ESSENTIALLY HOLDING PRIMARY SOIL PARTICLES (SAND, SILT, CLAY) TOGETHER TO FORM SECONDARY AGGREGATES ’. THESE ORGANISMS AND THE HUMUS THEY HELP CREATE AID IN THE SOIL DEVELOPMENT AND THE FORMATION OF SOIL HORIZONS.

THE EFFECT SOIL ORGANISMS, SPECIFICALLY VEGETATION, HAVE ON THE CREATION OF HUMUS AND SOIL FORMATION.
THE FIGURE SHOWS THE PERCENTAGE OF HUMUS CONTENT TENDS TO BE GREATER IN GRASSLAND SOILS, AS COMPARED TO CONIFEROUS FOREST SOILS. THE REASON BEHIND THIS OBSERVATION IS QUITE SIMPLE; DEAD GRASSLAND PLANTS TEND TO HAVE A SOMEWHAT NEUTRAL PH AS COMPARED TO FOREST NEEDLES, WHICH TEND TO HAVE AN ACIDIC PH.

THE RELATIVELY BASIC PH OF THE GRASSLAND PLANTS MAKES THEM EASIER FOR MICROORGANISMS TO DEGRADE AND TURN INTO HUMUS. OPPOSITELY, NEEDLES ARE MORE DIFFICULT FOR MICROORGANISMS TO DEGRADE; THUS, THE HUMUS CONTENT OF CONIFEROUS FOREST SOILS TENDS TO BE LESS THAN GRASSLAND SOILS. THE ACIDIC NATURE OF THE FOREST LITTER, HOWEVER, CAUSES ACIDS TO FLOW THROUGH THE SOIL PROFILE AND HELP DEVELOP HORIZONS QUICKER THAN A GRASSLAND SOIL. THE ACIDS CAN DISSOLVE SOIL MATERIALS AND REDEPOSIT THEM DEEPER IN THE SOIL, WHICH HELPS TO MORE QUICKLY CREATE HORIZONS.
THAT HUMUS CONTENT DECREASES WITH SOIL DEPTH. THIS MAKES SENSE, BECAUSE HUMUS IS DERIVED FROM DECAYING PLANT MATERIAL WHICH ORIGINATES AT OR NEAR THE SOIL SURFACE.


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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST



126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION




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