THE HUMAN SKELETON AND FUNCTIONS1



FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN SKELETON

We are not doing justice if we fail to expand the scope of study of the human

The adult human skeletal system consists of 206 bones,

as well as a network of tendons, ligaments and cartilage that connects them. The skeletal system performs vital functions — support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation — that enable us to survive.

Animals with internal skeletons made of bone, called vertebrates,

are actually the minority on Earth. As much as 98 percent of all animals are invertebrates, meaning they do not have internal skeletons or backbones.
The amount of bones a person is born with isn't the final tally later on. Human infants are born with about 300 bones, some of which fuse together as the body develops. By the time humans reach adult-hood, they have 206 bones. Human males grow until their late teens and females grow until two years after the beginning of their menstrual cycle, typically. This is when the growth plates on bones usually close, halting bone expansion.






The skeletons of adult males and females have some variation, primarily to accommodate childbirth. The female pelvis is flatter, more rounded and proportionally larger, for example. A male's pelvis is about 90 degrees or less of angle, whereas a female's is 100 degrees or more.

While they become brittle when outside of the body, bones are very much alive inside the body, being fed by a network of blood vessels from the circulatory system and nerves from the nervous system, according to Healthline.

A typical bone has a dense and tough outer layer. Next is a layer of spongy bone, which is lighter and slightly flexible. In the middle of some bones is jelly-like bone marrow, where new cells are constantly being produced for blood, according to the Merck Manuals.

Teeth are considered part of the skeletal system but they are not counted as bones. Teeth are made of dentin and enamel, which is strongest substance in your body. Teeth also play a key role in the digestive system.

The skeletal system has two distinctive parts: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton, according to the U.S National Library of Medicine (NLM).

The axial skeleton,/h2>< with a total of 80 bones, consists of the vertebral column, the rib cage and the skull. The axial skeleton transmits the weight from the head, the trunk and the upper extremities down to the lower extremities at the hip joints, which help humans maintain our upright posture, skeletal system and how it works to support and give


us our very shape and build. As I wrote earlier here WHAT IS SKELETON? If you haven’t read it yet please do and come back here to continue with the human skeletal functions
So what are the function of the human skeleton? The skeletal system in man functions the following ways
1.

SUPPORT

The rigid framework of the body known as the skeletal system or skeleton gives support to the body, the vertebral column, pelvic girdle and the pectoral girdle provides a framework by which the viscera can be supported.

As a result the internal organs are protected from crushing each other and the shape of the shape of the body is thereby maintained. The vertebral column or framework forms a pillar-like-structure into which the girdles and ribs are attached






2.

PROTECTION/h2>< The skeleton protects important and delicate organs of the body. Just as the skull forms a covering for the delicate tissues of the brain. It also houses the complicated parts of the inner ear. The skeletal system also protects and houses the eyeball. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord
The rib cage protects all the important organs of the thorax such as the heart, liver, lungs and blood vessels.
The pelvic girdle protects




abdominal organs such the urinary bladder and the female reproductive organs.


3.

MOVEMENT

The skeleton as a whole is made up of several small bones which are jointed and brings about movement
The skeleton provides a base for the attachment of muscles which brings about the movement of the body and limbs and gives them the ability to bend and twist in any desired direction.
The contraction and relaxation of the muscles attached to the bones also bring about movement


4.

RESPIRATION

The thoracic bone of the ribs, caged together with the muscles attached to them assists in respiration. This provision mostly assists humans in expiration and respiration
This is always seen and felt physically during respiration, not just humans but in most vertebrate. You can always see the expansion and contraction of the chest like a balloon, inflating and deflating. The connection of the bones of the rib bones to the sternum is logically the brain behind this intricate movement of the chest.

5.

MANUFACTURE OF BLOOD CELLS
The white and red blood cells are manufactured by the long bones of the body inside their marrow. This process of the blood cells being manufactured within the bone marrow is the work of a great creator. No doubt that from the unification of the male and female gametes, the cells begins to divide through so many processes like mitosis, meiosis the newly formed zygote begins a new journey of multiple expansion


6.

MUSCLES ATTACHMENT

The skeleton is and always been a comprehensive framework that gives shape to the body but most importantly that the skeleton provides places or point for the attachment of muscles.
The muscles are attached to bones by means of TENDONS.
You can read here for more about muscles


7.

SHAPE

DWANE JOHNSON popularly known as the ROCK with facelift
Sadly enough is that bones of an average human are rigid and strong which does not allow tweaking unless with little changes at a very tender age.
Because the skeletal shape comes natural. So the shape of an organism is therefore determined by the internal framework of the skeleton

8.

STORAGE OF MINERAL SALTS

The as I earlier mention, helps to store important mineral salts such as calcium and phosphorus, hence some bones serves as sources of food or minerals for some animals, like the preparation of bone meal as livestock feed

Keeping the human skeleton or skeletal system in shape and intact is of utmost importance because accident resulting to fracture or broken bone, even when treated can never give you the maximum reliance and performance of its original capacity. Although in some communities in the world, mostly in the part of Nigeria where I come from, there are local or traditional methods applied in joining broken bones. The duration it takes to heal and fix a completely broken bone varies from 2 to 4 months highest and that depending on the age of the affected person.
The traditional treatment of bones in Africa is the more reason most African soccer stars don’t bow out from the game due to bone injuries, people like the great SAMUEL ETO FIL, AUSTIN JAY JAY OKOCHA, DIDIER DROGBA and the rest I cannot be able to mention due to the scope of this article.
So in a nutshell, stay away from anything that may cause you to be injured, and play safe.








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6.


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS





125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION




THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON


THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON/h1>
The appendicular skeleton is made up of the girdles. That is the pectoral and pelvic girdle, as well as the bones of the limbs which



comprises of the fore limbs and hind limbs.
Here let’s look at the structure, formation, and the functions of these groups of skeletal system.

THE PECTORAL GIRDLES

The pectoral girdle is found in the or around the shoulder in man. It is made of two halves which are held by muscles. Each half of the girdle is made of three bones. These bones are







1. THE SCAPULA OR SHOULDER BLADE.
2. THE CLAVICLE OR COLLAR BONE
3. CORACOID

IN MAMMALS, THE SCAPULA AND THE CORACOID ARE FUSED TOGETHER to form what is called SCAPULA CORACOID.
THE SCAPULA IS A FLAT TRIANGULAR BONE. AT THE APEX IS A HOLLOW OR CAVITY CALLED GLENOID CAVITY INTO WHICH THE HEAD OF THE HUMERUS FITS TO FORM THE SHOULD JOINT.
Above the glenoid cavity is a small hook-shaped bone called coracoid bone.
On the other surface of the scapula, there is a ridge or spine called the scapula spine. It runs down towards the glenoid cavity.
The scapula spine ends with two projections which are acromion and metacromion.
Acromion is shorter than the metacromion but the metacromion is larger.
The clavicle is a small rod bone attached to the ligament joining the sternum to the acromion of the scapula.
The pectoral girdle especially the surface of the scapula, the two processes and the spine are important for the attachment of muscles and ligaments. The pectoral girdle also provides support for the fore limbs.



THE PELVIC GIRDLE


The pelvic girdle is found in the region close to the waist in man. It consists of two halves which are joined to each other ventrally and to the sacrum dorsally. The fusion is called PUBIS SYMPHYSIS.
Each half is called INNOMINATE BONE
Each half is made up of three bones, which are
1. Ilium
2. Ischium
3. Pubis
At the top of it all is the ilium which is the largest and longest of the three bones. At the lower end is the fused bones, ischium and pubis. The ischium and the pubis enclosed an opening or a hole called OBTURATOR FORAMEN.
It is the through this holes that nerves, blood vessels and muscles pass through. So on the other surface of each half of the girdle where the three bones meet, there is a deep hollow or depression called ACETABULUM where the head of the femur of the hind limb fits in to form the hip-joint which is an example of a ball and socket joint






h2>THE LIMBSWhat is a limb? Where can the limb be found?
The limbs are made up of the fore limbs which is the bones of the hands and the hind limbs which are the bones of the legs.
The limbs of most vertebrates are built in the same way or process, and this called PENTADACTYL LIMB---5-digit plan.
It is made up of a long bone which is followed by a pair of two long bones that lies side by side. The pair of these long bones is followed by a set of nine small bones which are arranged in three rows.
T5he nine small bones are followed by five digits. Each digits of the small bone is called phalanges. Here is a diagram of the phalanges of man
\

THE FORE LIMBS

What are the fore limbs? Where can we find a fore limb?
So fore limbs of a typical mammal is made up of an upper arm bone, which is a long bone called humerus. It has a pound head which fits in



and articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula of the pectoral girdle of the shoulder joint.
The lower of the humerus is like hinged pulley like surface called TROCHLEA. At the trochlea, the humerus articulates with the ulna and radius to form the elbow joint.

The humerus is followed by the bones of the fore-arm. The fore-arm bone are the radius and ulna. The radius is a long bone. It lies in front of the ulna and is slightly curved.
The ulna is longer than the radius. The ulna has a cavity called sigmoid cavity. The trochlea fits into this cavity. The ulna also projects backwards to form a projection called OLECRANON PROCESS




The radius/ulna bone is followed by bones of the wrists which are made of nine small bones arranged in three rows. These bones are called CARPALS. In the fore front, the carpals articulates with the radius/ulna and dixtally with the bones of the digits.
The wrist bones are followed by the bones of the digits. The digit bones are five and they are called metacarpals.
In man the metacarpals are called fingers, and they are also refers to as the phalanges.
In man, each digits has three phalanges with the exception of the thumb which has only two. In Rabbits, the phalanges ends in claws

THE HIND LIMBS

The hind limbs of a typical mammal is made up of the thigh bone called the femur. The femur is the largest and strongest bone found in the body. It is rounded at the proximal end to form a head which fits into the acetabulum of the pelvic girdle to form a hip joint.
Very close to the end of the femur, there are three projections called TROCHANTERS. They are very important for the attachment of muscles. At the distal end of the femur, are two rounded heads called CONDYLES. They articulate with the TIBIA bone. In between the two condyles is a pulley-like hoof.
The shank is made up of two bones called TIBIA and FIBULA. The Tibia is longer and stronger than the Fibula. At the end or proximal there are two grooves into which the condyles of the femur fits into.
The fibula is a small bone which lies outside the tibia. In front of this joint is a small round bone called the PATELLA or KNEE-CAP
The ankle is made up of six bones called tarsals. The inner tarsals projects backward to form the heel bone.
The foot of rabbit is made up of four digits called METATARSALS. Each digit is made up of three phalanges.
Most mammals including man has five metatarsals.



THE RIBS

The ribs of a typical vertebrate are long semi-circular rods connecting the thoracic vertebrae to the breastbone known as the sternum.
It is found in the chest region of mammals. There are twelve of ribs found in humans while the rabbit has thirteen in number. The bony cage formed by the ribs protects vital organs like the lungs and heart.
It also assist in breathing

So a typical rib consists of a head, which fits in between successive thoracic vertebrae, secondly a neck and most importantly the SHAFT.

Each rib articulates with the thoracic vertebrae by two processes.
i.

The CAPITALUM

which articulates with facets of the two near-by vertebrae and
ii.

The TUBERCULUM

known as tubercle articulates with the transverse process.


The first seven pairs of ribs are called the true ribs because they are connected directly with the sternum by costal cartilages. The next five pairs of ribs are called false ribs because the eighth, ninth and the tenth pair have a common connection with the sternum, each being attached to costal cartilages of the ribs above.
The eleventh and twelfth ribs are called FLOATING RIBS because they have connection whatsoever with the sternum


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You can read some of most interesting topics below

Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION




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THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS AND SUPPORTING TISSUES


one stop home for the study of living things

SKELETAL SYSTEMS AND SUPPORTING TISSUES

Introduction to the skeletal system in living organisms
Living 0rganisms including plants and animals need tissues and other supporting systems to enable them carry out life’s processes such as movement, respiration, feeding and reproduction.
Here is a typical example of what I am saying, without the various bones and tissues, vertebrates will not be able to stand, respire, move and carry out other life’s processes.
Many multi-cellular organisms, mostly plants and animals needs to support themselves in some way to enable them to maintain their shape. It is also worthy of note that without the skeletal system, we as humans will not be able to stand upright, move about in search of food, carry loads, raise our heads and other parts of the body. As a result of the above stated facts about the skeletal system of living organisms, we have no choice than to devote ample time to study one of the essential parts of living organisms.







THE SKELETAL SYSTEM AND THE SUPPORTING TISSUES IN ANIMALS

What is skeleton? Why do we have skeleton in our body as living things?
The question will not be complete if we don’t ask how many bines are there in the human body or how can we count the number of bones in the body of humans. So here is a compact definition of the skeletal system

WHAT IS SKELETON?

Skeleton is the bony framework of the body which provides support, shape and protection of the soft tissues and organs in animals. Without the skeletal system, animals may not be able to carry out most of life’s processes such as movement, respiration and feeding. One of the most important functions of the skeletal system is that it enables animals to move from place to place.
The skeletal system helps to determine the advancement and development of organisms, for instance, man is able to stand erects/upright because of our sophisticated skeletal system.

THE COMPONENT OF SKELETAL MATERIALS AND THEIR VARIOUS FORMS

This is most confusing in trying to understand and name the various forms of the skeletal system. The issue here is what are materials the creator of living organisms used in making the skeleton? Does the skeleton have components? So join me as I take deeper into the study of skeletal system of living organisms.
There are three forms of skeletal materials found in animals. These are cuticles, bones and cartilages

1.

CUTICLES

The cuticles as a material of the skeletal system, is composed of chitin and a thin of water proof layer of wax. The chitin is non-living substance, therefore animals with this type of skeletal material can only grow by moulting. In this process of growth called moulting, an organism only shed off it old skeletal system and put on a new one. In order words, any organism with this type of skeleton will have put off the old skin.
The cuticle is an exoskeleton which is located externally on the body of the organism. An example of organism with the cuticle as its skeletal material system are mainly arthropods which are insects, crabs, scorpion and prawns
2.

BONES

The bones as part of the skeletal system of organisms, is a tissue and a major component of the vertebral skeleton. It consists of living bone cells called osteocytes, protein fibres called collagen and minerals which is mainly calcium-phosphate and calcium-carbonate.





The minerals, which is the non-living component of the bone is made up of the mass of a bone. As a result, bone is stronger and more rigid tissue than the cartilage.
A bone consists of a hard outer layer-shaft and a spongy or hollow cavity filled with bone marrow. A typical example of organisms which have bones are mainly vertebrates, which are bony fishes, toads, lizards, snakes, birds and mammals.

3.

CARTILAGE

The cartilage, as form of material found in the skeletal system, is a tissue found in the skeleton of complex vertebrates. The cartilage consist of living cells called chondroblasts, carbohydrates and protein fibres. The cartilage is a flexible and tough tissue that has great tensile strength.


The cartilage acts as a shock absorber, cushioning the effects of bone moving against bone during movement. Examples of organisms with cartilages are mainly cartilaginous fishes like wales, sharks and mammals generally.




TYPES OF CARTILAGES
In mammals mostly, there are three types of cartilages. They are
i. Hyaline cartilages
This type of cartilages is found in bronchi and trachea, surfaces of movable joints, the protruding part of the nose which supports it
ii. Fibro-cartilages
This types of cartilages is tougher than hyaline cartilages and it is found in the discs between the small bones of the vertebral column
iii. Elastic cartilages
This type of cartilages is found in the external ear called pinnae and the epiglottis



THE VITAMINS AND MINERALS ELEMENTS NECESSARY FOR HEALTHY BONE DEVELOPMENT

Generally it is said that growth is effective and consistent if certain activities which are supposed to propel it is in proportion to it. So these vitamins and mineral elements are
i. Vitamin-D Calciferol, Vitamin-C all form the cement of bone
ii. Mineral elements are calcium/phosphorus/magnesium

The difference between bones and cartilages

BONES

I. Bone is made up of living and non-living cells
II. Bones are flexible especially in adults
III. Bone is made up of hard substance
IV. Bone can never be replaced by a cartilage
V. Bone is made up of mineral salts
VI. Bone is stronger, and it is a more rigid tissue

CARTILAGE

/
i. Cartilage is made up of mainly living cells
ii. Cartilage is very flexible both in young and the adult
iii. Cartilage is made up of soft materials or substance
iv. Cartilage is not as strong as the bone but it is a flexible tissue
TYPES OF SKELETON
Continue reading

TYPES OF BONE

PLEASE READ MY PREVIOUS ARTICLE ON FORMS OF SKELETAL MATERIALS AND BONES TO FULLY UNDERSTAND WHAT IS SKELETON

As I highlighted in my previous post, here I will be treating the various types of skeleton in more advanced detail. As you read, if there is any topic or subject, or whatever question you would like me to clarify please don’t hesitate to use our comment box or search this blog using the search box.

There are three main types of skeleton.

They are
1. Hydrostatic skeleton
2. Exoskeleton and
3. Endoskeleton

The Hydrostatic fluid skeleton

The hydrostatic skeleton is the type of skeleton possessed by soft-bodied animals. They have fluid pressure to provide support. The fluid is secreted to fill the spaces in the body. The fluid presses against the body wall, causing the muscles to contract, exerting pressure against the fluid.
This helps to maintain the shape and form of the animal. Example of organisms with this type of skeleton is the earthworm and anemones

EXOSKELETON

Exoskeleton is the type that is found in outside or the external part of the body of some animals. Most vertebrates also possess cuticle which is composed of chitin.
The Chitin is non-living substance commonly found covering the outer parts of the body of some animals. Such external skeletal tissues encloses, supports, gives shape, protects and enable the animals to move about from place to place.

Here is a skeletal system of human
Examples of organisms with exoskeleton are invertebrates like Euglena, Paramecium, Hydra, Tapeworm, Snails, Prawn, Crabs, Spiders, Crayfish, millipedes and earthworms.
Organisms with this type of skeleton can only grow by a process called moulting or ecdysis. In this process, an organism sheds off its old skeleton, and is covered with a new one as it grows.

ENDOSKELETON

An endoskeleton is the type of skeletal system that is found in the body of the animal. Endoskeleton exists in bony or cartilaginous skeleton of fishes, toad, lizards, birds and mammals. The endoskeleton in vertebrates is made up of cartilages and bones. Endoskeleton in mammals are the skull, vertebral column or backbone, ribs and the bones of the fore-limbs and hind-limbs

THE BONES OF AXIAL AND APPENDICULAR SKELETON

The skeletal system or bones in mammals like that of rabbit are grouped into two major parts. These are the Axial and Appendicular skeleton.
1. Axial skeleton
The Axial skeleton is made up of the skull, vertebral column or backbone, the ribs, sternum/breastbone
2. Appendicular skeleton
The Appendicular skeleton is made up of the limb girdles (pectoral and pelvic girdle) and the limbs (forelimbs and hind limbs)

THE SKULL


The mammalian skull is made up of several flat bones which are joined together by means of joints called sutures

There are three major parts of the skull
i. The cranium which is often called the brain box. This part of the skull houses the brain
ii. The facial skeleton, supports the nose, eyes and the muscles of the cheek.
iii. The jaw. This part of the skull is made up of the upper jaw called MAXILLA and the lower jaw known as mandible in the teeth is also fixed.

The functions of the skull

i. The skull gives protection to the brain
ii. The skull gives shape to the head
iii. The skull protects vital organs like eyes, nose and ears
iv. The skull bears the teeth which is used for the grinding of food


THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN

The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spinal column, is the central supporting structural system of the skeleton. The vertebral column forms the backbone of the vertebrate animals and houses the spinal cord.
It is made up of five group of bones known as the vertebrae=== singular vertebra. In humans, it consists of 33 vertebrae while in rabbit it consists of 46 vertebrae. The vertebrae are held one the other with a strong ligament having compressible cartilage pads called INVERTEBRAL DISC between consecutive vertebrae.

In mammals, the five different vertebrae are

1. Cervical vertebrae===== this found in the neck region
2. Thoracic vertebrae=====this type of vertebra is found in the chest region
3. Lumber vertebrae====this type of vertebrae is found along the upper abdomen
4. Sacral vertebrae=== this type of vertebrae is found around the lower abdomen
5. Caudal vertebrae=-==== this type of vertebrae is found around the tail region.


The features of typical vertebrae

All vertebrae, even though they have different functions, have certain features in common. So a typical vertebrae has the following features in common


i.

Neural carnal:

this is for the passage of the spinal cord
ii.

Neural spine:

this projects upwards dorsally for the attachment of muscles
iii.

Transverse process:

they projects from each sides of the vertebrae for the attachment of muscles and ligaments
iv.

Centrum:

it is a solid piece of bone below the neural canal
v. Facet: this a small, smooth and slight depressed area on a bone that is usually a point of contact with another bone.
vi. Zygapophysis: these are articular surfaces for the articulation of successive vertebrae. They are grouped into two parts. Pre-zygopaphysis facing inward and upwards while the post-zygapophysis faces outward and downward


Don’t get tired friend, read about the various types of vertebrae here
Types of vertebrae and their functions


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You can read some of most interesting topics below







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL


79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS





125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMALS


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMALS

In reality plants and animals are living things but there are still some basic differences between these groups of living thing. Here I am going give a comprehensive detail of these all these differences in the chart below.

PLANTS

1. Most green plants makes their own food through a process called photosynthesis. Also known as AUTOTROPHIC MODE OF FEEDING. But non green plants cannot make food through photosynthesis
2. Growth is mainly at the growing regions or parts of the plant itself known as Epical meristem. So growth is continuous throughout life.
3. Plants are not active. They don’t have developed organs for movement.
4. Plant have slow response to external stimuli
5. They possess no special excretory system
6. They possess no special sensory organ
7. Food is stored mainly as starch like in fungi
8. They have no fixed number of part, branching is continuous
9. Gaseous exchange is through the entire body
10. The cells of a typical plant has a rigid, non-living cellulose cl wall
11. Plant cells have large vacuoles containing cell sap






ANIMALS

1. Animals cannot out photosynthesis but widely depends on foods made by plants. Hence they are heterotrophic
2. Growth takes place all over the body or intercalary. And it is limited to a certain period in their life time




HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL





88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMAL KINGDOM


KINGDOM ANIMALIA

The animal kingdom is subdivided into the following sub-groups
ANIMALIA
PHYLUM
1. PORIFERA
2. COELERENTERATA
3. PLATYHELMINTHES
4. NEMATODA
5. ANNELIDA
6. MOLUSCA
7. ARTHROPODA
8. ECHINODERMATA
9. CHORDAQTA
THIS IS TE MAJOR GROUPS IN ANIMAL KINGDOM

The first eight phyla of the animal kingdom belongs to the sub-phyla invertebrates i.e. they are animals without backbone and external skeleton while the Phylum Chordata belongs to the Phylum Vertebrata i.e. animals with backbone and internal skeleton
Here I want to take a little time to delve into these groups of animals to explain with more precise details of their various characteristics.






1. PORIFERA
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PORIERAS
i. They are simple aquatic invertebrates PORIFERA
ii. They do not move about but are attached to rocks or shells-PONIFERA
iii. They live in colonies-PONIFERA
iv. They are primitive multi-cellular animals-PONIFERA
v. They have asymmetrical bodies which is that their bodies can be divided into two equal halves or parts-PONIFERA
vi. They are merely colonies of cells hence they lack specialized tissues-PONIFERA
vii. Examples of animals in this group is the sponges-PONIFERA
2. COELENTARATA
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COELENTARATA
I. COELENTARATA ARE MULTI-CELLULAR ANIMALS
II. Coelenterata body is made up of two layers
III. Coelenterata are mainly aquatic organisms
IV. Coelenterata bodies possesses radial symmetry
V. Coelenterata have soft jelly body
VI. Coelenterata possesses tentacles and stinging cells for capturing their prey
VII. Coelenterata reproduces asexually by budding
VIII. Example of Coelenterata are jelly fish, Hydra, Anemones and Corals

3. PLATYHEMENTHES
CHARACTERISTICS OF PLATYHEMENTHES
i. Platyhementhes are multi-cellular flat worms
ii. platyhementhes are bilaterally symmetrical
iii. platyhementhes do not have body cavity or lumen
iv. platyhementhes body is made up of three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm
v. platyhementhes are mainly parasites in man and a few others in animals
vi. platyhementhes are also known as flat worms are hermaphrodites and reproduces sexually
vii. examples of Platyhementhes are Tapeworm, Planaria, Liverflukes (fasciola) and Bloodfluke which is also known as Schistosoma






4. NEMATODA/NEMATODES
CHARACTERISTICS OF NEMATODES ALSO KNOWN AS ROUNDWORMS
I. Nematodes have round and cylindrical bodies
II. Nematodes lacks body cavity
III. Nematodes are bilaterally symmetrical
IV. Some Nematodes are parasites in man while some are free living
V. Nematode body is made up of three layers
VI. Some Nematodes are hermaphrodites while some of them reproduce sexually
VII. Examples of Nematodes are roundworms, hookworms, guinea worms, threadworms and filarial worms

5. ANNELIDA/ANNELID
CHARACTERISTICS OF ANNELIDA
i. Annelids have internal and external segmented bodies
ii. Annelids have long cylindrical bodies
iii. Annelids have a true body cavity also called Coelom
iv. Annelids are aquatic while some are terrestrial, which means they live in the soil
v. Annelids elementary canals has two openings, the mouth and Anus
vi. Annelids reproduce sexually while some are hermaphrodites
vii. Annelids bodies are made up of three layers
viii. Examples are earthworms, leeches and tubeworms


6. MOLUSCA
CHARACTERISTICS OF MOLLUSCA
I. MOLLUSCS HAVE SOFT AND Unsegmented bodies
II. Mollusca have tentacles in their heads
III. Mollusca possesses muscular foot-like body adapted for crawling
IV. Mollusca body is covered by a soft tissue called mantle
V. Some Mollusca have calcareous shell e.g. snails, while some don’t have shell e.g. the Octopus and Slug
VI. Mollusca are aquatic mostly but a few are terrestrial
VII. Mollusca eyes and tentacles are mainly used for navigation and sensitivity
VIII. Examples of Mollusca are Squid, mussels, periwinkles, snails. Oysters, Octopus and Slug


7. ARTHROPODA
CHARACTERISTICS OF ARTHROPODA
The Arthropoda is the largest phylum in the animal kingdom. It is sub-divided into the following
i. CRUSTACEA
ii. INSECTA
iii. ARACHNIDA
iv. MYRIAPODA
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ARTHROPODA
i. Arthropoda possesses segmented bodies
ii. Arthropoda have hard, rigid exoskeleton made of chitin
iii. Arthropoda have joined appendages or jointed legs used for feeding, movement, reproduction and some serves as sensory organs
iv. Arthropoda exhibits moulting or ecdysis. Which means they shed their exoskeleton at certain stages to permit growth
v. Arthropoda are aquatic while some are terrestrial
vi. Arthropoda bodies are divided into two or three segments such as the head, thorax and abdomen
vii. Arthropoda bodies are bilaterally symmetrical
viii. Arthropoda are triploblastic, i.e. they have three body layers
ix. Arthropoda have various means of respiration which are gills, trachea, lung book or the body surface
x. Examples are
a. INSECT- GRASSHOPPER, COCKROACH, HOUSEFLY, BUTTERFLY
b. ARACHNIDA- SPIDER, SCORPION, TICKS AND MITES
c. CRUSTACEANS- CRAB, CRAYFISH, SHRIMPS, PRAWNS AND LOBSTERS
d. MYRIOPDA- CENTIPEDES AND MILIPEDES

8. ECHINODERMATA
CHARACTERISTICS OF Echinodermata
i. Echinodermata bodies are radially symmetrical
ii. Echinodermata are mainly aquatic animals
iii. Echinodermata have spiny skin
iv. Echinodermata are triploblastic animals
v. Echinodermata have no brain nor head and their body is not segmented
vi. Echinodermata has tube feet which is used for movement
vii. Examples are Starfish, Sea urchins, Bristle Star and Sea cucumbers

9. CHORDATA
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHORDATA
The chordata has a sub-phylum called Vertebrata.
The vertebrates are characterized by the presence of backbone or vertebral column. They are divided into five classes. These are
i. Pisces-Fishes
ii. Amphibia-Amphibians
iii. Reptilia-Reptiles
iv. Aves-Birds
v. Mammalia-Mammals






General characteristics of Vertebrata
i. The vertebrates possesses an internal jointed skeleton made up of cartilage or bones
ii. Vertebrates have bilaterally symmetrical bodies
iii. Vertebrates body is divided into head, trunk and tail
iv. Vertebrates have two pairs of limbs. The pectoral limbs form the fore-limbs or wings while the pelvic limbs forms the hind-limbs or legs
v. Vertebrates have well developed nervous system with brain and spinal cord
vi. Vertebrates have well developed sense organs
vii. Vertebrates have a well enclosed blood system which comprises the blood vessels and the heart
viii. Vertebrates have efficient excretory system such as the kidneys
ix. Vertebrates are triploblastic animals
x. Vertebrates have skins which may be naked or have a covering of scales, hairs or feathers

A. PISCES-FISHES
CHARACTERISTICS OF FISHES OR PISCES
i. Fishes or Pisces are aquatic animals. They can be found in the sea, lakes, rivers and ponds
ii. Pisces or Fishes skins are covered with scales but few are without scales
iii. Fishes or Pisces have fins which are used for movement in water
iv. Pisces or Fishes are Poikilothermic or cold-blooded animals. That means that their body temperature varies with that of its environment
v. Pisces or Fishes have gills that are used for gases exchange
vi. Pisces or fishes have lateral lines system. This is used for detection of vibrations and pressure in water
vii. Reproduction In Pisces or Fishes are mostly sexual but they have this external type of fertilization process
viii. Pisces or Fishes have what we term as swim bladder which they use to maintain buoyancy. That is floating on top water
ix. Fishes are Oviparous animals. That is to say they develop their eggs outside the body of an adult female fish
x. Pisces or Fishes have two chambered heart
xi. Pisces or Fishes show Parental care for their young ones
Fishes or Pisces can be further divided into two groups based on their skeletal system. These are bony and cartilaginous fishes
i. Bony fish: these are fishes with bony skeleton e.g. tilapia, carp, salmon mackerel, herring
ii. Cartilaginous fish: these are fishes whose bones are made up of cartilages, e.g. dog-fish, minnow fish, skate, ray-fish and sharks

B. AMPHIBIA
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AMPHIBIANS
I. Amphibians are poikilothermic or cold-blooded animals
II. Amphibians have two pairs of limbs, fore-limbs and hind-limbs
III. Amphibians have naked/moist and glandular skin with no external scales
IV. Amphibians carry out gaseous exchange by gills, lungs, skin and mouth
V. Amphibians reproduces sexually while fertilization takes place externally
VI. Amphibians young ones called tadpole are herbivores while the adult amphibians are carnivores
VII. Amphibians have poisonous glands on their skins used for defense
VIII. Amphibians have three chambered heart
IX. Amphibians have sticky tongue which can be protruded or retracted quickly
X. Amphibians exhibits dual lifestyle. They live both in water and on land
XI. Amphibians do not show parental care
XII. Examples are toad, frogs, salamander and newts



C. REPTILIA
CHARACTERISTICS OF REPTILES
i. Reptiles are poikilothermic, which is cold-blooded animals
ii. Reptiles have dry skin, covered with scales
iii. Reptiles have two pairs of limbs except snakes
iv. Some reptiles are aquatic animals e.g. crocodile, turtles while others are terrestrial e.g. snakes and lizards
v. Reptiles reproduce sexually and fertilization is internal
vi. Reptiles have lungs which are used for gaseous exchange
vii. Reptiles have incomplete developed four chambered heart
viii. Reptiles have oviparous mode of reproduction i.e. the females lays fertilized eggs
ix. Reptiles have homodont dentition
x. Reptiles do not show parental care for young ones
xi. Examples
xi. Examples are lizards, wall gecko, tortoise, snakes, crocodile, turtle and chameleon


D. AVES-BIRDS
CHARACTERISTICS OF BIRDS
i. Birds are homoeothermic or warm blooded animals
ii. Birds entire body are covered with feathers except for the legs that has scales
iii. Birds have two pairs of limbs
iv. Birds have wings which are used for flight
v. Birds have beaks and not teeth which are used for feeding
vi. Birds have rigid and hollow bones with air sacs which them very light during flight
vii. Birds have a four chambered heart
viii. They reproduce sexually and fertilization is internal
ix. Birds exhibits Oviparous mode of reproduction
x. Birds have lungs which are used for gaseous exchange
xi. Birds show parental care
xii. Examples are pigeon, domestic fowl, duck, parrot, eagle, hawk, sparrow and weaver bird

E. MAMMALIA
CHARACTERISTICS OF MAMMALS
i. Mammals are homoiothermic or warm blooded animals
ii. Mammalian bodies are usually covered with hairs
iii. Mammals have heterodont dentition , meaning they have different sets of teeth
iv. The mammalian internal cavity is divided into chest and abdomen by a muscular diaphragm
v. They possess lungs used for gaseous exchange
vi. Mammals have two pairs of limbs
vii. The mammalian skin contains glands like the sweat, sebaceous and mammary glands
viii. Reproduction in mammals is sexual and fertilization is internal
ix. Mammals have viviparous mode of reproduction, which means they give birth to their young ones alive
x. Mammals have well developed brain
xi. They have four chambered heart
xii. The body of a typical mammal is bilaterally symmetrical
xiii. Mammals have external ear called pinnae
xiv. Mammals show parental care to their young ones
xv. Examples are man, rabbit, goad, dog, sheep, whales, lion and elephant


don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below






HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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