CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMAL KINGDOM


KINGDOM ANIMALIA
The animal kingdom is subdivided into the following sub-groups
ANIMALIA
PHYLUM
1. PORIFERA
2. COELERENTERATA
3. PLATYHELMINTHES
4. NEMATODA
5. ANNELIDA
6. MOLUSCA
7. ARTHROPODA
8. ECHINODERMATA
9. CHORDAQTA








THIS IS TE MAJOR GROUPS IN ANIMAL KINGDOM

The first eight phyla of the animal kingdom belongs to the sub-phyla invertebrates i.e. they are animals without backbone and external skeleton while the Phylum Chordata belongs to the Phylum Vertebrata i.e. animals with backbone and internal skeleton
Here I want to take a little time to delve into these groups of animals to explain with more precise details of their various characteristics.

1. PORIFERA
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PORIERAS
i. They are simple aquatic invertebrates PORIFERA
ii. They do not move about but are attached to rocks or shells-PONIFERA
iii. They live in colonies-PONIFERA
iv. They are primitive multi-cellular animals-PONIFERA
v. They have asymmetrical bodies which is that their bodies can be divided into two equal halves or parts-PONIFERA
vi. They are merely colonies of cells hence they lack specialized tissues-PONIFERA
vii. Examples of animals in this group is the sponges-PONIFERA
2. COELENTARATA
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COELENTARATA
I. COELENTARATA ARE MULTI-CELLULAR ANIMALS
II. Coelenterata body is made up of two layers
III. Coelenterata are mainly aquatic organisms
IV. Coelenterata bodies possesses radial symmetry
V. Coelenterata have soft jelly body
VI. Coelenterata possesses tentacles and stinging cells for capturing their prey
VII. Coelenterata reproduces asexually by budding
VIII. Example of Coelenterata are jelly fish, Hydra, Anemones and Corals






3. PLATYHEMENTHES
CHARACTERISTICS OF PLATYHEMENTHES
i. Platyhementhes are multi-cellular flat worms
ii. platyhementhes are bilaterally symmetrical
iii. platyhementhes do not have body cavity or lumen
iv. platyhementhes body is made up of three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm
v. platyhementhes are mainly parasites in man and a few others in animals
vi. platyhementhes are also known as flat worms are hermaphrodites and reproduces sexually
vii. examples of Platyhementhes are Tapeworm, Planaria, Liverflukes (fasciola) and Bloodfluke which is also known as Schistosoma

4. NEMATODA/NEMATODES
CHARACTERISTICS OF NEMATODES ALSO KNOWN AS ROUNDWORMS
I. Nematodes have round and cylindrical bodies
II. Nematodes lacks body cavity
III. Nematodes are bilaterally symmetrical
IV. Some Nematodes are parasites in man while some are free living
V. Nematode body is made up of three layers
VI. Some Nematodes are hermaphrodites while some of them reproduce sexually
VII. Examples of Nematodes are roundworms, hookworms, guinea worms, threadworms and filarial worms

5. ANNELIDA/ANNELID
CHARACTERISTICS OF ANNELIDA
i. Annelids have internal and external segmented bodies
ii. Annelids have long cylindrical bodies
iii. Annelids have a true body cavity also called Coelom
iv. Annelids are aquatic while some are terrestrial, which means they live in the soil
v. Annelids elementary canals has two openings, the mouth and Anus
vi. Annelids reproduce sexually while some are hermaphrodites
vii. Annelids bodies are made up of three layers
viii. Examples are earthworms, leeches and tubeworms


6. MOLUSCA
CHARACTERISTICS OF MOLLUSCA
I. MOLLUSCS HAVE SOFT AND Unsegmented bodies
II. Mollusca have tentacles in their heads
III. Mollusca possesses muscular foot-like body adapted for crawling
IV. Mollusca body is covered by a soft tissue called mantle
V. Some Mollusca have calcareous shell e.g. snails, while some don’t have shell e.g. the Octopus and Slug
VI. Mollusca are aquatic mostly but a few are terrestrial
VII. Mollusca eyes and tentacles are mainly used for navigation and sensitivity
VIII. Examples of Mollusca are Squid, mussels, periwinkles, snails. Oysters, Octopus and Slug






7. ARTHROPODA
CHARACTERISTICS OF ARTHROPODA
The Arthropoda is the largest phylum in the animal kingdom. It is sub-divided into the following
i. CRUSTACEA
ii. INSECTA
iii. ARACHNIDA
iv. MYRIAPODA
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ARTHROPODA
i. Arthropoda possesses segmented bodies
ii. Arthropoda have hard, rigid exoskeleton made of chitin
iii. Arthropoda have joined appendages or jointed legs used for feeding, movement, reproduction and some serves as sensory organs
iv. Arthropoda exhibits moulting or ecdysis. Which means they shed their exoskeleton at certain stages to permit growth
v. Arthropoda are aquatic while some are terrestrial
vi. Arthropoda bodies are divided into two or three segments such as the head, thorax and abdomen
vii. Arthropoda bodies are bilaterally symmetrical
viii. Arthropoda are triploblastic, i.e. they have three body layers
ix. Arthropoda have various means of respiration which are gills, trachea, lung book or the body surface
x. Examples are
a. INSECT- GRASSHOPPER, COCKROACH, HOUSEFLY, BUTTERFLY
b. ARACHNIDA- SPIDER, SCORPION, TICKS AND MITES
c. CRUSTACEANS- CRAB, CRAYFISH, SHRIMPS, PRAWNS AND LOBSTERS
d. MYRIOPDA- CENTIPEDES AND MILIPEDES

8. ECHINODERMATA
CHARACTERISTICS OF Echinodermata
i. Echinodermata bodies are radially symmetrical
ii. Echinodermata are mainly aquatic animals
iii. Echinodermata have spiny skin
iv. Echinodermata are triploblastic animals
v. Echinodermata have no brain nor head and their body is not segmented
vi. Echinodermata has tube feet which is used for movement
vii. Examples are Starfish, Sea urchins, Bristle Star and Sea cucumbers

9. CHORDATA
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHORDATA
The chordata has a sub-phylum called Vertebrata.
The vertebrates are characterized by the presence of backbone or vertebral column. They are divided into five classes. These are
i. Pisces-Fishes
ii. Amphibia-Amphibians
iii. Reptilia-Reptiles
iv. Aves-Birds
v. Mammalia-Mammals

General characteristics of Vertebrata
i. The vertebrates possesses an internal jointed skeleton made up of cartilage or bones
ii. Vertebrates have bilaterally symmetrical bodies
iii. Vertebrates body is divided into head, trunk and tail
iv. Vertebrates have two pairs of limbs. The pectoral limbs form the fore-limbs or wings while the pelvic limbs forms the hind-limbs or legs
v. Vertebrates have well developed nervous system with brain and spinal cord
vi. Vertebrates have well developed sense organs
vii. Vertebrates have a well enclosed blood system which comprises the blood vessels and the heart
viii. Vertebrates have efficient excretory system such as the kidneys
ix. Vertebrates are triploblastic animals
x. Vertebrates have skins which may be naked or have a covering of scales, hairs or feathers

A. PISCES-FISHES
CHARACTERISTICS OF FISHES OR PISCES
i. Fishes or Pisces are aquatic animals. They can be found in the sea, lakes, rivers and ponds
ii. Pisces or Fishes skins are covered with scales but few are without scales
iii. Fishes or Pisces have fins which are used for movement in water
iv. Pisces or Fishes are Poikilothermic or cold-blooded animals. That means that their body temperature varies with that of its environment
v. Pisces or Fishes have gills that are used for gases exchange
vi. Pisces or fishes have lateral lines system. This is used for detection of vibrations and pressure in water
vii. Reproduction In Pisces or Fishes are mostly sexual but they have this external type of fertilization process
viii. Pisces or Fishes have what we term as swim bladder which they use to maintain buoyancy. That is floating on top water
ix. Fishes are Oviparous animals. That is to say they develop their eggs outside the body of an adult female fish
x. Pisces or Fishes have two chambered heart
xi. Pisces or Fishes show Parental care for their young ones
Fishes or Pisces can be further divided into two groups based on their skeletal system. These are bony and cartilaginous fishes
i. Bony fish: these are fishes with bony skeleton e.g. tilapia, carp, salmon mackerel, herring
ii. Cartilaginous fish: these are fishes whose bones are made up of cartilages, e.g. dog-fish, minnow fish, skate, ray-fish and sharks

B. AMPHIBIA
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AMPHIBIANS
I. Amphibians are poikilothermic or cold-blooded animals
II. Amphibians have two pairs of limbs, fore-limbs and hind-limbs
III. Amphibians have naked/moist and glandular skin with no external scales
IV. Amphibians carry out gaseous exchange by gills, lungs, skin and mouth
V. Amphibians reproduces sexually while fertilization takes place externally
VI. Amphibians young ones called tadpole are herbivores while the adult amphibians are carnivores
VII. Amphibians have poisonous glands on their skins used for defense
VIII. Amphibians have three chambered heart
IX. Amphibians have sticky tongue which can be protruded or retracted quickly
X. Amphibians exhibits dual lifestyle. They live both in water and on land
XI. Amphibians do not show parental care
XII. Examples are toad, frogs, salamander and newts



C. REPTILIA
CHARACTERISTICS OF REPTILES
i. Reptiles are poikilothermic, which is cold-blooded animals
ii. Reptiles have dry skin, covered with scales
iii. Reptiles have two pairs of limbs except snakes
iv. Some reptiles are aquatic animals e.g. crocodile, turtles while others are terrestrial e.g. snakes and lizards
v. Reptiles reproduce sexually and fertilization is internal
vi. Reptiles have lungs which are used for gaseous exchange
vii. Reptiles have incomplete developed four chambered heart
viii. Reptiles have oviparous mode of reproduction i.e. the females lays fertilized eggs
ix. Reptiles have homodont dentition
x. Reptiles do not show parental care for young ones
xi. Examples
xi. Examples are lizards, wall gecko, tortoise, snakes, crocodile, turtle and chameleon


D. AVES-BIRDS
CHARACTERISTICS OF BIRDS
i. Birds are homoeothermic or warm blooded animals
ii. Birds entire body are covered with feathers except for the legs that has scales
iii. Birds have two pairs of limbs
iv. Birds have wings which are used for flight
v. Birds have beaks and not teeth which are used for feeding
vi. Birds have rigid and hollow bones with air sacs which them very light during flight
vii. Birds have a four chambered heart
viii. They reproduce sexually and fertilization is internal
ix. Birds exhibits Oviparous mode of reproduction
x. Birds have lungs which are used for gaseous exchange
xi. Birds show parental care
xii. Examples are pigeon, domestic fowl, duck, parrot, eagle, hawk, sparrow and weaver bird

E. MAMMALIA







CHARACTERISTICS OF MAMMALS
i. Mammals are homoiothermic or warm blooded animals
ii. Mammalian bodies are usually covered with hairs
iii. Mammals have heterodont dentition , meaning they have different sets of teeth
iv. The mammalian internal cavity is divided into chest and abdomen by a muscular diaphragm
v. They possess lungs used for gaseous exchange
vi. Mammals have two pairs of limbs
vii. The mammalian skin contains glands like the sweat, sebaceous and mammary glands
viii. Reproduction in mammals is sexual and fertilization is internal
ix. Mammals have viviparous mode of reproduction, which means they give birth to their young ones alive
x. Mammals have well developed brain
xi. They have four chambered heart
xii. The body of a typical mammal is bilaterally symmetrical
xiii. Mammals have external ear called pinnae
xiv. Mammals show parental care to their young ones
xv. Examples are man, rabbit, goad, dog, sheep, whales, lion and elephant


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2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
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35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
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113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
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PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
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PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION


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