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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE Farm mechanization has the following advantages 1. ...

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CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS




CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
INTRODUCTION TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
Classification of living things consists of placing together in categories those living things that are similar in nature. It involves placing living things into groups that have certain features in common, which distinguishes them from others.




This system of classification of living things, used today in our world is based on that by the introduced by the Swiss scientist, called Car Von Linne (1707-1778)
His name was Latinized to CAROLUS LINNAEUS. He published the classification of plants in the year 1753 and the publication of animal classification in the year 1758. So according to his book living things are classified as follows
All living things are first classified as kingdoms
1. KINGDOMS
The kingdoms are further split into a large number of smaller groups called phyla (singular-phylum) for animals and division for plants.
All the members of a phylum or division have certain features in common. Each phylum or group is broken down into orders, orders into families, families into genera (singular, genus), and genera into species.
The arrangement of living things in these hierarchy the highest to the lowest is summarized bellow
THERE ARE SEVEN MAJOR GROUPS GENERALLY USED IN THE CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS. THESE ARE
1. KINGDOMS
2. PHYLUM- ANIMAL OR PLANT DIVISION
3. CLASS
4. ORDER
5. FAMILY
6. GENUS
7. SPECIES





The basic unit of classification of living things is the species. Species is the smallest unit of organism containing members which has a greater number of features in common and can inter-breed amongst themselves.
A member of a particular species cannot inter breed with a member of another species. For example, all humans belongs to the same species while all monkeys belongs to a different species, so humans and monkeys cannot inter breed together.

Here is a little table showing the classification of humans and lions

CLASS---------------HUMAN-------------LION
Kingdom----------Animalia------------Animalia
Phylum-----------Chordata------------Chordata
Class--------------Mammalia----------Mammalia
Order-------------Primate-------------Carnivora
Family-----------Hominidae----------Felidae
Genus-----------Homo-----------------Panthera
Species----------Sapiens--------------Leo

BINOMIAL SYSTEM OF NOMENCLATURE
Carolus Linnaeus also introduced a system of naming living things which is popularly by Biologists today.
This system is better known as the BINOMIAL SYSTEM OF NOMENCLATURE. In this system, organisms or living things are (is) given two names, hence binomial nomenclature.
The first name is the generic name while (common name) and always begin with a capital letter.
The second name is the specific name which begins with a small letter.
These scientific name are normally written in italics or are underlined. Here is a list of how the binomial system of nomenclature is used,
1. MAN—Homo sapiens
2. Lion—Panthera leo
3. Maize—Zea mays
4. Rat—Rattus rattus
5. Dog—Canis domestica
6. Housefly—Musca domestica
7. Rice—Orza sativa
8. Orange—Citrus sinensis
9. Cocoa—Theobrama cacao


YOU CAN READ MY POST ON BOTANICAL NAMES OF WEEDS HERE



KINGDOMS
Carolus Linnaeus classified living things two major kingdoms under the binomial system of nomenclature, which are PLANTS AND ANIMALS KINGDOM.
Under this classification or methods in binomial system of nomenclature, so many so-called one celled organisms weren’t able to fit properly. So many Biologists then decided to place all living things into five kingdoms instead of the normal binomial system of nomenclature, which are as follows
1. MONERA
2. PROTISTA
3. FUNGI
4. PLANTAE
5. ANIMALIA

IN THE CLASSIFICATION OF LIVINGTHINGS THROUGH BINOMIAL SYSTEM OF NOMENCLATURE, OR IN WHATEVER METHOD IS EMPLOYED, VIRUS AS AN ORGANISM, CANNOT FIT INTO ANY OF THE FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATIONS LISTED ABOVE. SO WE SHALL TAKE A SEPARATE STUDY OF VIRUS AS AN ORGANISM
VIRUS
Virus is a microscopic organism which cannot be seen with the aid of an ordinary microscope unless with the aid of an electron microscope.
A VIRUS does not have cell structure, but it is just made up of a coiled strand of nucleic acid (ribonucleic acid-RNA) or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) enclosed within a protein coat.
Virus is seen as being on the borderline between living and non-living thing. When it is outside the living cells crystals and becomes non-living thing but it is within the cells, it becomes a living thing by exhibiting reproduction.





CHARACTERISTICS OF VIRUS
1. Virus is microscopic in nature
2. It possesses either a RNA or DNA
3. It cannot reproduce by binary fission
4. It does not have structures used in the synthesis of protein
5.
6. It does not respire, feed, excrete etc.
7. It is responsible for the causes of so many chronic diseases like small pox, influenza, AIDS and measles

VIRUS AS A LIVING THING
Virus is generally regarded as a living thing or animate thing because of the following characteristics
1. Virus can reproduce when inside another living cell
2. It possesses characteristics that can be transferred or transmitted from one generation to another
VIRUS A ON LIVING THING
1. When a virus is extracted from a living cell and placed on a non-living medium, it assumes a crystalline form thus becoming a non-living.
2. Virus cannot respire-breathing
3. Virus cannot respond to stimuli
4. Virus cannot excrete
READ MORE ABOUT VIRUSES HERE


THE KINGDOM: MONERA
Characteristics of organisms found under the kingdom MONERA
i. They are unicellular, though some form filaments of cells
ii. The cells are prokaryotic
iii. The cells have no organized nucleus, with nuclear membrane
iv. They do not have complex chromosome
v. The cells do not have mitochondria, no chloroplast, no endoplasmic reticulum
vi. The cell walls does not contain cellulose, polysaccharides and amino acids
vii. There is no sexual reproduction
viii. They may possess autotrophic or heterotrophic mode of feeding(nutrition)

THE MONERA KINGDOM IS DIVIDED INTO TWO PHYLA, THEY ARE
a. Schizophyta
b. Cynophyta

CHARCTERISTICS OF SCHIZOPHYTA
i. They are simple living things that belong to monera
ii. They are procaryotic cells with no definite nucleus
iii. They are microscopic and non-green plants
iv. The reproduce by asexual means known as binary fission
v. They are unicellular organisms
vi. They lack mitochondria
vii. The cell walls have rigid cell wall which is complex
viii. They lack cellulose but consist of consists of Polysaccharide of amino acids

An example of organisms that belongs to this group or phylum
Bacteria





CHARACTERISTICS OF CYNOPHYTA
i. They are microscopic in nature
ii. They do not have cilia, flagella or other locomotive organelles but most often some of them move by gliding
iii. They reproduce by cell division
iv. They are unicellular, other are filamentous with individual cells joined end to end while very few of them form colonies
v. Their cells contain chlorophyll, but not in chloroplast
vi. Their cell walls do not contain cellulose like that of a bacteria
vii. Example of organisms in this group is blue-green alga(Nostic)

KINGDOM PROTISTA
Characteristics of this group of organisms
i. They are unicellular organism.
ii. The organisms are all eukaryotic
iii. They move either by cilia, flagella or may be amoeboid by nature
iv. Some of the Protista are heterotrophic including parasitic forms while some are both heterotrophic and photosynthetic
v. Mode of reproduction is usually asexual by mitosis while some have sexual reproduction by fusion of gametes
There are four phyla in these kingdom. They are
1. Euglenophyta
2. Protozoa
3. Chrysophyta
4. Pyrrophyta
Protozoa and Euglenophyta can be used as representative of this group
PROTOZOA
CHARACTERSTIC OF PROTOZOA
i. They belong to the group of organisms called Protista
ii. They are microscopic organisms
iii. They have Eucaryotic cells, meaning cells with membrane
iv. They reproduce asexually by binary fission
v. They are mainly aquatic organisms while a few are parasitic
vi. They are unicellular
vii. Organisms In this group moves by different organelles, e.g. Amoeba and paramecium
EXAMPLES OF PROTOZOA INCUDES AMEOBA, PARAMECIUM AND TRAPENOSOMES
2. CHARACTERISTICS OF EUGLENOPHYTA
EUGLENA
Euglena virisis is a protist and a typical example of an organism sharing both the characteristics of plans and Animals. However, it is a microscopic, unicellular and an aquatic organism

ANIMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EUGLENA
i. Possession of flagellum used for movement
ii. Possession of gullet food passage and for reservoir
iii. Possession of contractile vacuole used for osmo-regulation
iv. Presence of eye spot which enables it to respond to stimuli
v. Possession of pellicle which makes its body flexible
vi. Presence of myonemes which aids its movement
vii. It has the ability to carry out holozoic mode of feeding(nutrition) in the absence of sunlight
PLANT CHARACTERISTICS OF UEGLENA
1. Possession of chloroplast which enables it carry out photosynthesis
2. Possession of pyrenoids where starch is stored
3. Presence of paramylum granules forms in which starch is stored
4. It has holophytic (autotrophic) mode of nutrition


KINGDOM FUNGI
The fungi where for a long time classified with the plants. They however defers from the plants in the composition of their cells. Most of their cell walls are made up chitin instead of cell walls
CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI
i. They are Eucaryotes. Cells with membrane
ii. Some are unicellular. E.g. yeast while the multicellular example is mushroom
iii. They have no true roots, stem or leaves
iv. They are non-green plants, that means they lack chlorophyll
v. They are mainly saprophytes while some are parasites
vi. They store excess food in form of glycogen
vii. Their cell walls are made of chitin instead of cellulose
viii. The vegetative parts are made up of fine and delicate threads called hyphae.
ix. They reproduce asexually by formation of pores and some sexually by conjugation
x. They are mainly found in moist areas or environments
xi. Examples of fungi are BREAD MOULD RHIZOPHUS, MUSHROOM, MUCOR, MILDEW, YEAST AND TOAD STOOLS


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You can read some of most interesting topics below
Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION



xii. They are mainly non-motile organisms