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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

CLASSIFICATION OF PLANT KINGDOM


KINGDOM PLANTAE

Kingdom plantae has three main subdivision and they are
a. Thallophyta (e.g. green, brown and red algae)
b. Bryophyta e.g. liverworts and mosses
c. Tracheophyta that is vascular plants

Thalophyta

This group can be further be divided into three main class
1. Rhodophyta that is red algae
2. Chlorophyta that is green algae
3. Phaecophyta which is red algae

CHARACTERISTICS OF THALOPHYTA GROUP OF PLANTS

I. These are simple microscopic plants
II. Some are unicellular e.g. Chlamydomonas while others are multi-cellular like spirogyra
III. They are simple aquatic plants
IV. They have no true roots
V. They have no true stem
VI. They have no real leaves
VII. They have cellular cell wall
VIII. Algae are mainly autotrophic plants
IX. They synthesize their own food
X. Algae are filamentous and the cells are not differentiated into tissue
XI. They have no specialized reproductive organs but can exhibit both sexual and asexual means of reproduction
XII. Examples are the free single living Algae like Chlamydomonas








CHARACTERISTICS OF BRYOPHYTA

i. They are complex, multi-cellular green plants
ii. The cells are differentiated into tissues
iii. They lack true roots, leaves and stems
iv. They are non-vascular plants
v. They are mostly found growing in moist places
vi. Bryophytes can be aquatic or terrestrial
vii. They exhibit asexual reproduction by spores and sexually by gametes
viii. Examples are mosses and liverworts


TRACHEOPHYTA

This division is made up of vascular plants and are grouped into two sub-division
1. Pteridophyta
2. Spermatophyta

CHARACTERISTICS OF PTERIDOPHYTA

i. They are multi-cellular and vascular green plants
ii. They are non-flowering plants
iii. They have no true roots, leaves and stems
iv. They are mainly terrestrial plants while a few of them are aquatic
v. They are non-seed producing plants
vi. They reproduce sexually by spores
vii. Example is fern


SPERMATOPHYTA

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPERMATOPHYTA

i. They are multi-cellular, seed producing flowering plants
ii. They are vascular plants and have well developed vascular tissues
iii. They have true roots, leaves and stem
iv. They reproduce sexually and do not need water for reproduction
v. They are mainly terrestrial green plants


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SPERMATOPHYTES AND BRYOPHYTES
SPERMATOPHYTES BRYOPHYTES

1. Vascular bundle present vascular bundle absent
2. Stems are present stems are absent
3. They have true leaves no true leaves or stems
4. They reproduce by flower they reproduce through spores
5. They have well developed roots they Rhizoids






Further, spermatophytes can be divided into two main class. These are
a. Gymnosperm
b. Angiosperm
Characteristics of Gymnosperm
i. These are plants with naked seeds
ii. They do not bear flowers
iii. They have true roots
iv. The seeds are borne on special nobs called cones
v. They are vascular green plants
vi. Examples are pine, cycads, gingkos and conifers

Characteristics of Angiosperm

i. They are the most complex green flowering plants
ii. They are vascular plants
iii. They have well developed and complete flowers
iv. They are seed plants with seeds enclosed in the fruits
v. They are mainly terrestrial plants
vi. They show up more sophisticated or specialized reproductive mechanism involving pollination and fertilization

Difference between Gymnosperm and Angiosperm

Gymnosperm Angiosperm
i. Don’t bears seeds bear seeds
ii. Seed are naked seeds are enclosed
iii. Seed borne on cones seeds develop from ovules


DIVISIONS OF ANGIOSPERM

Angiosperm can be sub-divided into two main classes according to their number of seed leave known as cotyledons,
These are dicotyledonous plants and Monocotyledonous plants


Characteristics of dicotyledonous plants

i. They bear two seed leaves at germination known as cotyledon
ii. The vascular bundles of each stem are arranged in a regular pattern
iii. The floral parts exists in two groups of four or five
iv. They leaves have veins arranged in a branched network
v. They have taproot systems
vi. The usually undergoes secondary growth
vii. Examples are mango, orange and groundnut

Characteristics of monocotyledonous plants

i. They have only one seed leaf during germination called cotyledon
ii. The vascular bundles of the stem are scattered
iii. The leaves have veins running into one another
iv. They have fibrous root system
v. They do not undergo secondary growth
vi. Examples are rice, maize, millet, palm tree and guinea grass

Difference between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants

MONOCOT DICOT
1. They possess one seed leaf they have two seed leaves (cotyledon)
2. Scattered vascular bundle vascular bundle arranged in patterns
3. Fibrous root system taproot system
4. Hypogeal germination epigeal germination
5. Floral parts in groups of threes floral parts exist in group of fours
6. They possess parallel venation they possess net venation
7. Ring of vascular bundle presence of Xylem in stem Centre
8. Do not undergo secondary growth they undergo secondary growth

A typical Angiosperm whether dicotyledonous or monocotyledonous plants has four major parts.

They are listed as follows

1.

FLOWERS

FUNCTION OF THE FLOWERS
I. FLOWERS are responsible for reproduction
2.

LEAVES

FUNCTIONS OF THE LEAVES
i. The leaves are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis
ii. It aids excretion
iii. Used for transpiration
iv. Used for respiratory process
3.

STEM

FUNCTIONS OF STEM
i. It gives support to plants
ii. It holds the leaves in best position to receive sunlight
iii. It conducts water and helps in transporting mineral salts from the roots to the leaves
iv. The stem helps in transporting manufactured from the leaves to other parts of the body
v. The stem helps to hold the flowers in the best place for pollination to take place
vi. Some parts of the stem can also manufacture food
4.

ROOTS

FUNCTIONS OF THE ROOT
1. The root holds the plants firmly to the ground
2. The roots absorbs water and mineral salts from the ground through a process called osmosis
3. The roots of some typical plants stores food like cassava and sweet potato
4. It aids respiration in some aerial plants


THE MODIFICATION OF LEAVES

The leaves of some plants are modified for various purposes and the purposes are as follows
1. FOR FOOD: for storage e.g. onion, Garlic,
2. LEAF TENDRILS: e.g. Gloriosa
3. LEAF SPINES: e.g. Cactus, Opuntial and Euphorbia
4. LEAFHOOKS: e.g. Bignonia
5. VEGETATTIVE PROPERGATION: e.g. Bryophyllum
6. ANIMAL TRAPS: e.g. Venus flytrap, Nepenthes or pitcher plants, Uticalaria Bladderworts, Sundews, Butterwort, Pinguicula
7. PROTECTIVE SCALE LEAVES: e.g. Onions, Shallots canna.

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34. FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS

41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION