FUNCTIONS OF THE CELL AND IT'S PROPERTIES



PROPERTIES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE CELL

Introduction of the cell
All living cell ism made up of seven major types of materials. These materials includes protein, carbohydrates, water, fats and oil, vitamins, minerals and nucleic acids.
The cell needs these materials substance in order to enable them grow and reproduce effectively. The various metabolic reactions which takes place in a living cell arise from these needs. The anabolic build up or processes which give rise to growth and reproduction require energy.







All these metabolic processes of building up and breaking down of minerals to release energy is very important to the existence of life. If these processes stops or malfunctions it eventually leads to death. Therefore the cell is capable of carrying out nutrition, reproduction, movement, excretion, respiration and growth.

NUTRITION OR FEEDING IN CELL

NUTRITION IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH food is taken in by living organisms in order to supply the nutrients that is required for life’s essential processes. Therefore food is the source of nutrients to every living organism.
IMPORTANCE OF FOOD TO THE CELL
Living cells requires food for various reasons. These reasons are as follows
i. To provide energy needed for various physical and metabolic activities
ii. Living requires food to make essential substances such as hormones and enzymes
iii. Living cells require food to make new cells for growth and replacement of worn-out tissues
iv. Living cells require food in order to supply various substances necessary for healthy growth and development


TYPES OF NUTRITION

There are two major types of nutrition in which various organisms are able to manufacture food needed by the cell or the body. These are AUTOTROPHIC AND HETEROTROPHIC

1.

AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION

======= Autotrophic nutrition is the type in which the organisms are able to manufacture their own food. Organisms which are able to manufacture their own food are called Autotrophs. THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION. THESE ARE PHOTOSYNTHETIC NUTRITION AND CHEMOSYNTHETIC NUTRITION. THESE SHALL BE WELL TREATED IN MY POST HERE
2.

HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION

============ HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION is the type in which organisms cannot manufacture their own food. So they sole depends on food manufactured by the AUTOTROPHS which are mainly plants. Organisms which cannot manufacture their own food are called HETEROTROPHS. Most animals, protozoa and bacteria belongs here. There are several types of HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION and they include the following, HOLOZOIC, PARASITIC, SAPROPHYTIC AND SYMBIOTIC NUTRITION more of these is treated here in this post






ROLES OF ENZYMES

Enzymes are organic catalysts, usually proteinous in nature, which promotes or speed up chemical changes in an organism but are used up in the chemical process.
Enzymes accelerate metabolic reaction without changing their composition in the process. You can read an exclusive preview about enzymes and its activities here,

MINERAL SALTS

Plant cells require mineral salts or elements obtained from the soil in form of solution for healthy growth and development
The soil is the main source of mineral salts while gaseous elements such as oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen are obtained majorly from the atmosphere. These elements or nutrients are grouped into two major table as depended on the quantity required by the plants. These are
a.

Macro-nutrients or major elements

======= macro-nutrients are mineral elements or nutrients required by plants in large quantities for healthy growth and development. These are nitrogen, phosphorus, hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulphur, calcium and iron
b.

Micro-elements or Trace elements

================ micro-elements are mineral elements or nutrients that are required in small quantity by plants for proper growth and development. These elements includes the following zinc, cobalt, chlorine, manganese, boron, molybdenum and copper. You can follow more of these elements and their various functions here ---

METABOLISM

WHAT IS METABOLISM?
Metabolism is defined as all chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of the cells and the organisms. So metabolism is grouped into two parts, they are ANABOLISM AND CATABOLISM

ANABOLISM

What is anabolism?
Anabolism is defined as the building up of complex organic molecules from simple ones in a biological system. In Anabolic process, energy is usually consumed because some forms of energy is first required to first to break the old molecule before building up new complex ones. Common examples of anabolic processes are
i. The formation of glycogen from glucose
ii. The formation of starch from glucose
iii. The formation protein from amino acids
iv. The formation of fats and oil from fatty acids and glycerol
v. Photosynthesis in green plants







CATABOLISM

What is catabolism?
Catabolism is defined as the breaking down of complex organic molecules into simple substances including the release of energy. Examples of catabolic processes in the body are
i. Respiration
ii. Fermentation and
iii. Digestion


TYPES OF FEEDING IN AMOEBA

Amoeba exhibits holozoic mode of feeding. Although it has no mouth, it feeds by a process called engulfing. Amoeba feeds on other micro-organisms like diatom, bacteria and flagellates. Whenever an amoeba comes across food, it produces pseudopodium which known as false legs and flows around the food particle and encloses the food gently along with a drops of water.
In the process food vacuole is formed inside the animal where digestion takes place with the aid of digestive enzymes produced by the protozoan. The digested food then diffuses into the protoplasm while the undigested parts of the food are left behind by the cell which simply swims away from it

FEEDING IN PARAMECIUM

Paramecium as an organism exhibits holozoic mode of nutrition. Paramecium feeds mainly on yeast and other organic food substances. Paramecium feeds by beating the locomotive organelles that is the cilia against the surrounding water. And then a current of water wither food particles are swept in the gullet of the animal. These food particles are then taken into the food vacuole situated at the end of the gullet. The endoplasm then secretes digestive enzymes into the food. As the digestion process continues the food vacuole moves around the endoplasm.
Undigested food then is passed out as waste product through the anal pore.

FEEDING IN SPIROGYRA

The spirogyra exhibits holozoic or photosynthetic mode of nutrition. In other words, spirogyra is capable of manufacturing its own food through photosynthesis. Paramecium has chloroplast which it uses with the aid of sunlight in the presence of carbon dioxide to carry out photosynthesis.
Through the process of photosynthesis, organic food as required by the spirogyra is synthesized and eventually used by the organism. More teaching on these unicellular organisms and their lifestyle will be treated in details in subsequent posts here

THE EXPERIMENT TO SHOW THE EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS ON BEAN SEEDLINGS

Plant bean seedling in different boxes. Apply the right quantity of nitrogenous fertilizers to the bean seedlings in box A. B box is given an extra excess treatment of the fertilizer and Box C is given no treatment at all but apply only water.
After about 2-3 weeks, the seedlings are compared. The bean seed in box A will grow normally with sturdy stem and rich green leaves. The seedlings in box B will soft elongated stem and few leaves. The seedlings in Box C will have stunted stem and yellow leaves;





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Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION





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