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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE Farm mechanization has the following advantages 1. ...

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THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON


THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON/h1>
The appendicular skeleton is made up of the girdles. That is the pectoral and pelvic girdle, as well as the bones of the limbs which



comprises of the fore limbs and hind limbs.
Here let’s look at the structure, formation, and the functions of these groups of skeletal system.

THE PECTORAL GIRDLES

The pectoral girdle is found in the or around the shoulder in man. It is made of two halves which are held by muscles. Each half of the girdle is made of three bones. These bones are







1. THE SCAPULA OR SHOULDER BLADE.
2. THE CLAVICLE OR COLLAR BONE
3. CORACOID

IN MAMMALS, THE SCAPULA AND THE CORACOID ARE FUSED TOGETHER to form what is called SCAPULA CORACOID.
THE SCAPULA IS A FLAT TRIANGULAR BONE. AT THE APEX IS A HOLLOW OR CAVITY CALLED GLENOID CAVITY INTO WHICH THE HEAD OF THE HUMERUS FITS TO FORM THE SHOULD JOINT.
Above the glenoid cavity is a small hook-shaped bone called coracoid bone.
On the other surface of the scapula, there is a ridge or spine called the scapula spine. It runs down towards the glenoid cavity.
The scapula spine ends with two projections which are acromion and metacromion.
Acromion is shorter than the metacromion but the metacromion is larger.
The clavicle is a small rod bone attached to the ligament joining the sternum to the acromion of the scapula.
The pectoral girdle especially the surface of the scapula, the two processes and the spine are important for the attachment of muscles and ligaments. The pectoral girdle also provides support for the fore limbs.



THE PELVIC GIRDLE


The pelvic girdle is found in the region close to the waist in man. It consists of two halves which are joined to each other ventrally and to the sacrum dorsally. The fusion is called PUBIS SYMPHYSIS.
Each half is called INNOMINATE BONE
Each half is made up of three bones, which are
1. Ilium
2. Ischium
3. Pubis
At the top of it all is the ilium which is the largest and longest of the three bones. At the lower end is the fused bones, ischium and pubis. The ischium and the pubis enclosed an opening or a hole called OBTURATOR FORAMEN.
It is the through this holes that nerves, blood vessels and muscles pass through. So on the other surface of each half of the girdle where the three bones meet, there is a deep hollow or depression called ACETABULUM where the head of the femur of the hind limb fits in to form the hip-joint which is an example of a ball and socket joint





h2>THE LIMBSWhat is a limb? Where can the limb be found?
The limbs are made up of the fore limbs which is the bones of the hands and the hind limbs which are the bones of the legs.
The limbs of most vertebrates are built in the same way or process, and this called PENTADACTYL LIMB---5-digit plan.
It is made up of a long bone which is followed by a pair of two long bones that lies side by side. The pair of these long bones is followed by a set of nine small bones which are arranged in three rows.
T5he nine small bones are followed by five digits. Each digits of the small bone is called phalanges. Here is a diagram of the phalanges of man
\

THE FORE LIMBS

What are the fore limbs? Where can we find a fore limb?
So fore limbs of a typical mammal is made up of an upper arm bone, which is a long bone called humerus. It has a pound head which fits in



and articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula of the pectoral girdle of the shoulder joint.
The lower of the humerus is like hinged pulley like surface called TROCHLEA. At the trochlea, the humerus articulates with the ulna and radius to form the elbow joint.

The humerus is followed by the bones of the fore-arm. The fore-arm bone are the radius and ulna. The radius is a long bone. It lies in front of the ulna and is slightly curved.
The ulna is longer than the radius. The ulna has a cavity called sigmoid cavity. The trochlea fits into this cavity. The ulna also projects backwards to form a projection called OLECRANON PROCESS




The radius/ulna bone is followed by bones of the wrists which are made of nine small bones arranged in three rows. These bones are called CARPALS. In the fore front, the carpals articulates with the radius/ulna and dixtally with the bones of the digits.
The wrist bones are followed by the bones of the digits. The digit bones are five and they are called metacarpals.
In man the metacarpals are called fingers, and they are also refers to as the phalanges.
In man, each digits has three phalanges with the exception of the thumb which has only two. In Rabbits, the phalanges ends in claws

THE HIND LIMBS

The hind limbs of a typical mammal is made up of the thigh bone called the femur. The femur is the largest and strongest bone found in the body. It is rounded at the proximal end to form a head which fits into the acetabulum of the pelvic girdle to form a hip joint.
Very close to the end of the femur, there are three projections called TROCHANTERS. They are very important for the attachment of muscles. At the distal end of the femur, are two rounded heads called CONDYLES. They articulate with the TIBIA bone. In between the two condyles is a pulley-like hoof.
The shank is made up of two bones called TIBIA and FIBULA. The Tibia is longer and stronger than the Fibula. At the end or proximal there are two grooves into which the condyles of the femur fits into.
The fibula is a small bone which lies outside the tibia. In front of this joint is a small round bone called the PATELLA or KNEE-CAP
The ankle is made up of six bones called tarsals. The inner tarsals projects backward to form the heel bone.
The foot of rabbit is made up of four digits called METATARSALS. Each digit is made up of three phalanges.
Most mammals including man has five metatarsals.



THE RIBS

The ribs of a typical vertebrate are long semi-circular rods connecting the thoracic vertebrae to the breastbone known as the sternum.
It is found in the chest region of mammals. There are twelve of ribs found in humans while the rabbit has thirteen in number. The bony cage formed by the ribs protects vital organs like the lungs and heart.
It also assist in breathing

So a typical rib consists of a head, which fits in between successive thoracic vertebrae, secondly a neck and most importantly the SHAFT.

Each rib articulates with the thoracic vertebrae by two processes.
i.

The CAPITALUM

which articulates with facets of the two near-by vertebrae and
ii.

The TUBERCULUM

known as tubercle articulates with the transverse process.


The first seven pairs of ribs are called the true ribs because they are connected directly with the sternum by costal cartilages. The next five pairs of ribs are called false ribs because the eighth, ninth and the tenth pair have a common connection with the sternum, each being attached to costal cartilages of the ribs above.
The eleventh and twelfth ribs are called FLOATING RIBS because they have connection whatsoever with the sternum


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You can read some of most interesting topics below

Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS


41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION




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