THE HUMAN SKELETON AND FUNCTIONS1



FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN SKELETON

We are not doing justice if we fail to expand the scope of study of the human

The adult human skeletal system consists of 206 bones,

as well as a network of tendons, ligaments and cartilage that connects them. The skeletal system performs vital functions — support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation — that enable us to survive.

Animals with internal skeletons made of bone, called vertebrates,

are actually the minority on Earth. As much as 98 percent of all animals are invertebrates, meaning they do not have internal skeletons or backbones.

The amount of bones a person is born with isn't the final tally later on. Human infants are born with about 300 bones, some of which fuse together as the body develops. By the time humans reach adult-hood, they have 206 bones. Human males grow until their late teens and females grow until two years after the beginning of their menstrual cycle, typically. This is when the growth plates on bones usually close, halting bone expansion.

The skeletons of adult males and females have some variation, primarily to accommodate childbirth. The female pelvis is flatter, more rounded and proportionally larger, for example. A male's pelvis is about 90 degrees or less of angle, whereas a female's is 100 degrees or more.

While they become brittle when outside of the body, bones are very much alive inside the body, being fed by a network of blood vessels from the circulatory system and nerves from the nervous system, according to Healthline.

A typical bone has a dense and tough outer layer. Next is a layer of spongy bone, which is lighter and slightly flexible. In the middle of some bones is jelly-like bone marrow, where new cells are constantly being produced for blood, according to the Merck Manuals.

Teeth are considered part of the skeletal system but they are not counted as bones. Teeth are made of dentin and enamel, which is strongest substance in your body. Teeth also play a key role in the digestive system.

The skeletal system has two distinctive parts: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton, according to the U.S National Library of Medicine (NLM).

The axial skeleton,/h2>< with a total of 80 bones, consists of the vertebral column, the rib cage and the skull. The axial skeleton transmits the weight from the head, the trunk and the upper extremities down to the lower extremities at the hip joints, which help humans maintain our upright posture, skeletal system and how it works to support and give




us our very shape and build. As I wrote earlier here WHAT IS SKELETON? If you haven’t read it yet please do and come back here to continue with the human skeletal functions
So what are the function of the human skeleton? The skeletal system in man functions the following ways
1.

SUPPORT

The rigid framework of the body known as the skeletal system or skeleton gives support to the body, the vertebral column, pelvic girdle and the pectoral girdle provides a framework by which the viscera can be supported.






As a result the internal organs are protected from crushing each other and the shape of the shape of the body is thereby maintained. The vertebral column or framework forms a pillar-like-structure into which the girdles and ribs are attached


2.

PROTECTION/h2>< The skeleton protects important and delicate organs of the body. Just as the skull forms a covering for the delicate tissues of the brain. It also houses the complicated parts of the inner ear. The skeletal system also protects and houses the eyeball. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord
The rib cage protects all the important organs of the thorax such as the heart, liver, lungs and blood vessels.
The pelvic girdle protects




abdominal organs such the urinary bladder and the female reproductive organs.


3.

MOVEMENT

The skeleton as a whole is made up of several small bones which are jointed and brings about movement
The skeleton provides a base for the attachment of muscles which brings about the movement of the body and limbs and gives them the ability to bend and twist in any desired direction.
The contraction and relaxation of the muscles attached to the bones also bring about movement


4.

RESPIRATION

The thoracic bone of the ribs, caged together with the muscles attached to them assists in respiration. This provision mostly assists humans in expiration and respiration
This is always seen and felt physically during respiration, not just humans but in most vertebrate. You can always see the expansion and contraction of the chest like a balloon, inflating and deflating. The connection of the bones of the rib bones to the sternum is logically the brain behind this intricate movement of the chest.

5.

MANUFACTURE OF BLOOD CELLS
The white and red blood cells are manufactured by the long bones of the body inside their marrow. This process of the blood cells being manufactured within the bone marrow is the work of a great creator. No doubt that from the unification of the male and female gametes, the cells begins to divide through so many processes like mitosis, meiosis the newly formed zygote begins a new journey of multiple expansion


6.

MUSCLES ATTACHMENT

The skeleton is and always been a comprehensive framework that gives shape to the body but most importantly that the skeleton provides places or point for the attachment of muscles.
The muscles are attached to bones by means of TENDONS.
You can read here for more about muscles


7.

SHAPE

DWANE JOHNSON popularly known as the ROCK with facelift
Sadly enough is that bones of an average human are rigid and strong which does not allow tweaking unless with little changes at a very tender age.
Because the skeletal shape comes natural. So the shape of an organism is therefore determined by the internal framework of the skeleton

8.

STORAGE OF MINERAL SALTS

The as I earlier mention, helps to store important mineral salts such as calcium and phosphorus, hence some bones serves as sources of food or minerals for some animals, like the preparation of bone meal as livestock feed

Keeping the human skeleton or skeletal system in shape and intact is of utmost importance because accident resulting to fracture or broken bone, even when treated can never give you the maximum reliance and performance of its original capacity. Although in some communities in the world, mostly in the part of Nigeria where I come from, there are local or traditional methods applied in joining broken bones. The duration it takes to heal and fix a completely broken bone varies from 2 to 4 months highest and that depending on the age of the affected person.
The traditional treatment of bones in Africa is the more reason most African soccer stars don’t bow out from the game due to bone injuries, people like the great SAMUEL ETO FIL, AUSTIN JAY JAY OKOCHA, DIDIER DROGBA and the rest I cannot be able to mention due to the scope of this article.
So in a nutshell, stay away from anything that may cause you to be injured, and play safe.






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6.

You can read some of most interesting topics below

Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION




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