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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

THE ORGANIZATION AND LEVELS OF LIFE


THE ORGANIZATION OF LIFE

All living thing are highly organized. This organization of life occurs in levels. The simplest structures are found at the lower levels and they interact to build up more complex structures at the next level and so on

LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION OF LIFE

There are four levels of organization of life in organism. These are the cells, tissues, organs and systems. The simplest of all these levels is the cell.

CELL (the first level)

The cell is defined as the smallest unit of living organism. It is the first level of the organization of life. All plants and animals are made up of cells. Some of these plants and animals are made up of only one cell, therefore they are called

UNICELLULAR ORGANISM.

Those that are made up of many or more than one cell are called MULTI-CELLULAR ORGANISM.
Examples of unicellular organism are
1. Amoeba
2. Euglena
3. Paramecium
4. Plasmodium
5. Trypanosome
6. Chlamydomonas










These organisms consist of only one cell and are capable of carrying out all of lives processes such as movement, feeding, respiration, reproduction, growth and death
Examples of cells in higher plants are phloem cells, xylem vessels, while examples of cells in higher animals are
1. Rod and cone cells in the eyes
2. Ova or eggs
3. Spermatozoa
4. Nerve cells
5. Red blood cells
6. White blood cells
7. Epidermal cells

TISSUES (second level)

A tissue is a group of similar cells forming a layer in an organism which performs a particular function. In other words, a tissue consists of two or more different cells aggregating together to perform a specific function. Examples of tissues higher plant organisms are
1. Mesophyll layer in leaves.
2. Epidermal tissues
3. Sclerenchyma tissues
4. Xylem tissues
5. Parenchyma tissues in stem
Examples of tissues in higher animals are
1. Muscles
2. Bone
3. Cartilages
4. Blood also known as liquid tissue
Examples of organisms which exist in tissue level are
1. Hydra
2. Algae
3. Sponges
4. Fungi

you can read my post on botanical names of weeds here

ORGANS (third levels)

An organ is a group of similar tissues forming a layer in an organism which performs a specific function. Examples organs in plants are
1. Leaves
2. Flowers
3. Roots
4. Stem
5. Seed
Examples of organs in animals are
1. Skin
2. Eyes
3. Ears
4. Stomach
5. Brain
6. Heart
7. Liver
8. Kidney
These organs are known to perform specific function in the body








SYSTEM (fourth level)

A system is a group of organs which work together to perform a specific function.
Examples of system in plants are
1. Root system
2. Shoot system
Examples of system in animals are
1. Digestive system
2. Reproductive system
3. Respiratory system
4. Skeletal system
5. Nervous system
6. Excretory system
7. Circulatory system
These systems work together to form an organism. For an organism to perform well, all the cell, tissues, organs and system must also function perfectly
COMPLEXITY OF ORGANIZATION IN HIGHER ANIMALS OR ORGANISMS
There is an increase in complexity from unicellular organisms to multicellular organisms. Even though the unicellular organisms can perform all life’s complexes’ they still lack vital tissues, organs or systems that is efficient and capable of ensuring their survival. As a result of these, higher organisms have advantages and some disadvantages in complexity over the unicellular organisms

ADVANTAGES OF COMPLEXITY IN HIGHER ORGANISMS

1. IT LEADS TO CELLULAR DIFFERENTIATION
As a result of complexity, group of similar cells are differentiated to form tissues that carry out similar functions
2. IT LEADS TO INTERNAL STRUCTURAL SPECIALIZATION
Differentiation leads to internal specialization in which the group of similar cells or tissues become specialized to carry out one or more functions
3. MUTUAL INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPONENT CELLS
This simply means there is division of labor within the cells. Simply no put no one part of the cell functions alone but depend on the parts in order to be effective
4. COMPLEXITY LEADS TO EFFICIENCY
Complexity makes higher animals or organism more efficient in carrying out their life processes
5. COMPLEXITY LEADS TO INCREASE IN SIZE.
Complexity leads to increase in size because there is space between the cells for growth.
6. IT INCREASES THE ADAPTATION TO ITS ENVIRONMENT.
Complexity makes higher organism to become more resistant to adverse changes in the environmental condition

DISADVANTAGES OF COMPLEXITY IN HIGHER ORGANISMS


1. Inability of the individual cells to live on its own independently
In complexity, cells lose their independence and become increasingly dependent on one another’s activities
2. Difficulty in acquisition of oxygen and food materials.
Increased size creates difficulty in acquisition of oxygen that is respiratory gas, food materials and loss of waste products
3. Complexity leads to slower rate of diffusion of oxygen or other respiratory gas in higher organisms.
4. Complexity leads to slower rate of expulsion of waste products from the cells
5. Complexity leads to difficulty in reproduction in higher organisms
6. Complexity leads to difficulty to regenerate in higher organisms

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1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS







89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE