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THE ORGANIZATION AND LEVELS OF LIFE


THE ORGANIZATION OF LIFE

All living thing are highly organized. This organization of life occurs in levels. The simplest structures are found at the lower levels and they interact to build up more complex structures at the next level and so on






LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION OF LIFE

There are four levels of organization of life in organism. These are the cells, tissues, organs and systems. The simplest of all these levels is the cell.

CELL (the first level)

The cell is defined as the smallest unit of living organism. It is the first level of the organization of life. All plants and animals are made up of cells. Some of these plants and animals are made up of only one cell, therefore they are called

UNICELLULAR ORGANISM.

Those that are made up of many or more than one cell are called MULTI-CELLULAR ORGANISM.
Examples of unicellular organism are
1. Amoeba
2. Euglena
3. Paramecium
4. Plasmodium
5. Trypanosome
6. Chlamydomonas






These organisms consist of only one cell and are capable of carrying out all of lives processes such as movement, feeding, respiration, reproduction, growth and death
Examples of cells in higher plants are phloem cells, xylem vessels, while examples of cells in higher animals are
1. Rod and cone cells in the eyes
2. Ova or eggs
3. Spermatozoa
4. Nerve cells
5. Red blood cells
6. White blood cells
7. Epidermal cells

TISSUES (second level)

A tissue is a group of similar cells forming a layer in an organism which performs a particular function. In other words, a tissue consists of two or more different cells aggregating together to perform a specific function. Examples of tissues higher plant organisms are
1. Mesophyll layer in leaves.
2. Epidermal tissues
3. Sclerenchyma tissues
4. Xylem tissues
5. Parenchyma tissues in stem
Examples of tissues in higher animals are
1. Muscles
2. Bone
3. Cartilages
4. Blood also known as liquid tissue
Examples of organisms which exist in tissue level are
1. Hydra
2. Algae
3. Sponges
4. Fungi

you can read my post on botanical names of weeds here

ORGANS (third levels)

An organ is a group of similar tissues forming a layer in an organism which performs a specific function. Examples organs in plants are
1. Leaves
2. Flowers
3. Roots
4. Stem
5. Seed
Examples of organs in animals are
1. Skin
2. Eyes
3. Ears
4. Stomach
5. Brain
6. Heart
7. Liver
8. Kidney
These organs are known to perform specific function in the body







SYSTEM (fourth level)

A system is a group of organs which work together to perform a specific function.
Examples of system in plants are
1. Root system
2. Shoot system
Examples of system in animals are
1. Digestive system
2. Reproductive system
3. Respiratory system
4. Skeletal system
5. Nervous system
6. Excretory system
7. Circulatory system
These systems work together to form an organism. For an organism to perform well, all the cell, tissues, organs and system must also function perfectly
COMPLEXITY OF ORGANIZATION IN HIGHER ANIMALS OR ORGANISMS
There is an increase in complexity from unicellular organisms to multicellular organisms. Even though the unicellular organisms can perform all life’s complexes’ they still lack vital tissues, organs or systems that is efficient and capable of ensuring their survival. As a result of these, higher organisms have advantages and some disadvantages in complexity over the unicellular organisms

ADVANTAGES OF COMPLEXITY IN HIGHER ORGANISMS

1. IT LEADS TO CELLULAR DIFFERENTIATION
As a result of complexity, group of similar cells are differentiated to form tissues that carry out similar functions
2. IT LEADS TO INTERNAL STRUCTURAL SPECIALIZATION
Differentiation leads to internal specialization in which the group of similar cells or tissues become specialized to carry out one or more functions
3. MUTUAL INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPONENT CELLS
This simply means there is division of labor within the cells. Simply no put no one part of the cell functions alone but depend on the parts in order to be effective
4. COMPLEXITY LEADS TO EFFICIENCY
Complexity makes higher animals or organism more efficient in carrying out their life processes
5. COMPLEXITY LEADS TO INCREASE IN SIZE.
Complexity leads to increase in size because there is space between the cells for growth.
6. IT INCREASES THE ADAPTATION TO ITS ENVIRONMENT.
Complexity makes higher organism to become more resistant to adverse changes in the environmental condition






DISADVANTAGES OF COMPLEXITY IN HIGHER ORGANISMS


1. Inability of the individual cells to live on its own independently
In complexity, cells lose their independence and become increasingly dependent on one another’s activities
2. Difficulty in acquisition of oxygen and food materials.
Increased size creates difficulty in acquisition of oxygen that is respiratory gas, food materials and loss of waste products
3. Complexity leads to slower rate of diffusion of oxygen or other respiratory gas in higher organisms.
4. Complexity leads to slower rate of expulsion of waste products from the cells
5. Complexity leads to difficulty in reproduction in higher organisms
6. Complexity leads to difficulty to regenerate in higher organisms

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1. Recognizing living things
2. Biology as an enquiry in science
3. Branches of biology
4. Processes of methods of science
5. Usefulness of science
6. Living and non-living things
7. Characteristics of living things
8. Differences between plants and animals
9. Organization of life
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17. Form in which living cells exist
18. Structures of plants and animal cells and functions of their components
19. Similarity and differences between plant and animal cell
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22. Plasmolysis
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27. Feeding
28. Cellular respiration
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35. Type of skeleton
36. Bones of axial and appendicular skeleton
37. Joint
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40. Mechanisms of supports in plants
41. Uses of fibres to plants
42. Functions of supporting tissues in plants
43. test for Food substances
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You can read some of most interesting topics below
Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION




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