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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

TYPES OF RESPONSE OR IRRITABILITY


How living things respond to its environment

This is not just about the organism responding to stimuli but the respond to growth and movement within the cell of an organism

One of the characteristics of a living thing is responding to stimuli. All living thing are capable of responding to internal and external stimuli. The ability to do this is called irritability or sensitivity. Through this means, plants and animals are able to detect and respond to changes in their environment.
So irritability is one of the basic characteristics of living organisms.






TYPES OF RESPONSES

OR IRRITABILITY
Animals responds to irritability quicker than plan does to external changes to or in their environment. Here it is worthy of note that only a part of plant respond to stimuli while the animals responds through their whole body.
Organs of higher animals that respond to stimuli are
1. Flowers
2. Leaf
3. Root
4. Stem
5. Tendril
There three major types of responses. These are
i. Tactic
ii. Nastic
iii. Tropic movements


TAXIS OR TACTIC MOVEMENTS

What is taxis or tactic movement?
Taxis or tactic movement/responses is a type of directional responses or movement in which a whole organism moves from one place to another in response to external stimuli such as light, temperature, water and certain chemicals.
So locomotion can be positive or negative


Examples of tactic movements are
1. Thermotaxis
2. Phototaxis
3. Hydrotaxis
4. Chemotaxis

1.

THERMOTAXIS:

this is the movement of organisms in response to temperature change or heat. Example is a snail moving from hot region to a cold region. And this is known as negative Thermotaxis
2.

PHOTOTAXIS:

Phototaxis is the movement in response to light stimuli by organisms. It is the source of light to organisms. E.g. Euglena moving away from sunlight.
3.

HYDROTAXIS:

Hydrotaxis is the response of the whole organism in response to water or humidity, example is the woodlouse moving towards areas of high humidity
4.

CHEMOTAXIS:

Chemotaxis is the movement of organism in response to a chemical stimuli. Example is Amoeba and Paramecium moving away from chemicals








1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON







90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES







154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

2.

NASTISM OR NASTIC MOVEMENTS

WHAT IS NASTISM?
WHAT IS NASTIC MOVEMENTS?
Nastism is a type of response in which a part of a plant moves in a non-directional stimuli such as changes in light density,
The respond movement is also non-directional. Examples of Nastic movements are as follows
i. Closing of the morning glory flower when the light intensity is low
ii. Petals of sun flower which opens in the light and closes in the dark
iii. The folding of the leaflets of the Mimosa plant when it is touches
iv. The closing of the leaflets of the Flamboyant tree. That is sleeping movement due to low light intensity.



TROPISM OR TROPIC MOVEMENTS

WHAT IS TROPISM?
Tropism is a type of response in which a part of a plant moves in response to a directional stimulus. The direction of the movement is related to that of the stimulus and it is positive if the plant part grows towards the stimulus and it is negative if the plant part grows away from the stimulus.
Tropism are very slow growth movement. They are named according to the stimuli, e.g. Phototropism which is a response to light and Hydrotropism which is response to water.

EXAMPLES OF TROPIC RESPONSES

Names of stimuli, names of response and examples of it

1. LIGHT==phototropism type of response====examples are how the shoots of plants bends towards light which is known as =positive phototropic.. while the roots of plants moves away from light also known as negative phototropic
2. GRAVITY==GEOTROPISM== examples are the shoots of green plants bends away from gravity which also known as negatively Geotropic=while roots bends towards gravity also known as positively Geotropic
3. WATER==Hydrotropism==example is how the roots of plants move towards moisture which is known as positively Hydrotropic= while the shoot bends away from moisture also known as negatively Hydrotropic
4. TOUCH==THIGMOTROPISM==example is how the tendrils of a climbing plant twine around a support as a positive response to touch== while the roots grows away from touch as a negative response

The differences between TROPIC AND nastic movements. These are the major difference between tropic and nastic movement and response to either internal or external stimuli. It cannot be said enough here about the difference between tropic and nastic movement in response to stimuli in living organisms; here I am going to treat a little of the varied difference between tropic and nastic movement

TROPIC MOVEMENT

The question is how do we recognize a tropic movement? The following are the various ways to recognize a tropic movement
1. Tropic movement involves growth movement
2. Topic movement involves responding to unilateral stimuli
3. In tropic movement, response is very slow
4. Growth in tropic movement is irreversible
5. Tropic movement is not due to turgor
6. Tropic movement is a directional, positive or negative response to stimuli

Here are the various ways or major

differences that makes nastic movement different from tropic movement.

They are as follows
1. Nastic movement is not a growth movement
2. Organisms do not respond to diffuse stimuli in nastic movement
3. In nastic movement, responding to stimuli is very fast
4. Growth in Nastic movement is reversible
5. Nastic movement can be due to changes in cell turgor
6. Nastic movement is non-directional. It is neither positive nor negative response



ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS THAT EVOKE RESPONSE

There are so many environmental factors that evokes response in living organisms. They are but limited to the following,
i. Light
ii. Water
iii. Gravity
iv. Temperature and
v. PH

The factors effects plants and animals in so many ways. Worthy of note is that equal exposure of plant (CELL) to light diffuses their hormones equally and this makes the growth of plants upward and upright.
Therefore placing a plant in a horizontal position causes an unequal diffusion of hormones. This will make the shoot negatively geotropic by growing upwards. So if a p0lant is starved of adequate light, it tends to respond to any source of light available. The shoot will then respond positively to the source of light while the root will respond negatively.
Invariably the smaller plants in an attempt to get light from the top, automatically grows taller. And so this type of Growth response is called AETIOLATION

ROLES OF AUXINS IN GROWTH MOVEMENT

Auxin is the best known amongst plant hormones. They control tropism by stimulating growth in roots and shoots.
Auxins are produce by the cells in the shoots from where they diffuse to the growing regions. For example, Auxins influence phototropic movements in plants in the flowing ways
i. Auxins are produces at the tip of the shoot.
ii. Auxins diffuse or migrate to growing areas of the plants
iii. The shoot of plants will definitely grow straight as long as there is equal concentration of light and Auxins in all sides
iv. Unilateral illumination of the shoot causes the Auxin to the sides of the shoot moving away from light
v. The increase in the number of Auxin in a particular area makes growth faster
vi. This eventually causes a curvature or bending towards the source of the light thereby resulting in positive Phototropism

HOW LIGHT BRINGS ABOUT TROPIC MOVEMENT IN ROOT AND STEM OF A FLOWERING PLANT

SHOOT OR STEM
1. When unilateral light falls on the stem, the Auxin which is also known as the growth hormone is displaced from the lighted to the dark side.
2. The increase in Auxin concentration on the dark side increases growth on that side, causing the stem to bend toward light known as positive phototropism
ROOT
I. The Auxin is displaced from the lighted side to the dark side
II. The increase in Auxin concentration in the root retards growth in the dark side, so causing the root to bend away from the light which is known as negative phototropism



MOVEMENT OF THE CELL

What is movement in living organism?
Do living things actually move from place to place?
So here I will be writing in details of the various way that living organisms including single cell organisms move from place to place in search of food or responding to internal or external stimuli
So the question now is what is movement?

Movement is the ability of living organisms to move from one place to another. Reasons for movement of cell or living organisms are so many but I will like to write on a few of the following.
i. Searching for food
ii. Escape from danger
iii. Positive and negative response to stimuli
iv. For reproduction sake
All organisms that can move from place to place are equipped with various organelles or Organs and other mechanism for movement


CYCLOSIS

WHAT IS THE MEANING OF CYCLOSIS?
So what is Cyclosis? Cyclosis is the circulation of protoplasm in cells.
Cyclosis occurs in protozoa organisms like Amoeba, and it is generally known as amoeboid movement.
Amoeboid movement is aided by a mechanism called cytoplasmic streaming. It involves the principle of gel-sol conversion of cytoplasm i.e. the varying of the viscosity of cytoplasm and the accompanying fluid pressure at different points within the cell membrane

Movement in amoeba is accompanied by a continuous streaming of the cytoplasm in a forward direction.
This movement is accompanied by the locomotion of the whole cell. In the forward direction, the central plasma sol is converted to plasma gel which remain attached to the inner wall of the plasma membrane but at another point the gel is reconverted in to a sol thereby creating what is called pseudopodium in front and the driving force from behind

TYPES OF ORGANELLES FOR MOVEMENT

There are various types of organelles or organs used by cellular organisms for movement. Organelles which causes movement affecting the whole cells and leading to cellular locomotion in organisms like paramecium, Chlamydomonas and Euglena are flagella and cilia

What is a flagella?

Flagella are long whip-like projections on the cell surface. They are usually one or two on a cell.
Organisms that moves with the aid of a flagella or possess flagella for movement are as follows
1. TRYPONOSOME
2. CHLAMYDOMONAS
3. SPERMATOZOA
Singular-flagellum
Plural-flagella







3

REPRODUCTION IN LIVING ORGANISMS

What is reproduction?
How reproduction does takes place?
Here you will see the importance of reproduction as concerns living things


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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS