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TYPES OF SUPPORTING TISSUES IN PLANTS


SUPPORTING TISSUES IN PLANTS

How is support provided for in Herbaceous and woody plants?

TYPES OF SUPPORTING TISSUES

IN PLANTS
FUNCTIONS OF THE PARENCHYMA
WOOD OR THE XYLEM TISSUES
What are the Xylem tissues?






Plants generally, are knows to possesses supporting tissues which gives them definite shape, strength, rigidity and resistance against external forces such as wind and water to which they are continuously subjected.


TYPES OF SUPPORTING TISSUES IN PLANTS

The main supporting tissues in plants are PARENCHYMA, COLLENCHYMA, SCLERENCHYMA (FIBRE), AND WOOD=XYLEM.
The structure of some of these tissues are practically not the same


1.

PARENCHYMA TISSUES

Where is the parenchyma found or located?
The parenchyma tissues are found in the cortex of stem, phloem, root, leaf, mesophyll, storage tissues and the xylem






STRUCTIURE OF THE MESOPHYLL

The mesophylls are composed of cells with large vacuoles and relatively thin wall. They are mainly living cells with cellulose and many air spaces within them. Parenchyma tissues are the most common and in abundant of plants tissues


FUNCTIONS OF THE PARENCHYMA


The functions of the parenchyma are as follows
i. When the vacuoles are filled with sap, parenchyma tissues gives firmness and turgidity to the stem of herbaceous plants
ii. The parenchyma can also store food and water
iii. They are found in the leaf and mesophyll, functioning mainly in the synthesis of food.


COLLENCHYMA

What is Collenchyma?
Collenchyma cell are usually located in the Cortex of stem, root and in the Hypodermis just beneath the epidermis

THE COLLENCHYMA STRUCTURE
The cells of collenchyma tissues are living, elongated and unevenly thickened at the corners. The cells are flexible thus allow the bending and twisting strains to which the stem, roots and the leaves of plants are often subjected to


THE FUNCTIONS OF A COLLENCHYMA

What are the functions of a Collenchyma?
i. Collenchyma cells provides strength and supports in young growing plants parts such as the stem, petioles and leaf blade
ii. The Collenchyma cells gives flexibility and resilience to the plant.
iii. They also enable the plant to bend without breaking


SCERENCHYMA

What is Sclerenchyma?
Sclerenchyma cells are found mainly in the pericycle, in the vascular tissues cortices of stem and roots.

The structure of the Sclerenchyma cells is that they have thicken walls containing lignin in addition to cellulose and other substances

There are two types of Sclerenchyma,

they are
i. FIBRES AND
ii. SCLEREIDS.

1. Fibres are elongated cells with tapering ends. These help to provide strength and flexibility to plants
2. Sclereids unlike fibres, are not too elongated but have great strength like the fibres too.

The functions of Sclerenchyma

The functions of Sclerenchyma are as follows
i. The Sclerenchyma fibre type give flexibility to plants and prevent them braking up easily
ii. Sclerenchyma provide strength, rigidity, hardness and support to plants



WOOD OR THE XYLEM TISSUES

What are the Xylem tissues?
Then wood or Xylem tissues are mainly in the vascular tissues of stems, roots and leaves

The structure of the wood or Xylem tissues is made up of many cells. They are
i. Tracheid’s
ii. Vessels
iii. Fibres and
iv. Xylem parenchyma



i.

TRACHEIDS:

Tracheids are non-living elongated, tapering cells with thickened, lignified walls which have piths that aids the passage of water and helps to dissolve mineral salts.
ii. VESSELS: Vessels are long tabular structures that are formed by the fusion of several elongated cells places or stacked one upon another





iii. FIBRES: fibres are similar to the Sclerenchyma fibres. They are narrow, elongated cells with very thick walls and tapering end walls
iv.

XYLEM PARENCHYMA:

these are similar to the parenchyma tissues. They are composed of cells with large vacuoles. The functions of the Xylem parenchyma tissues are as follows
1. The Xylem tissues provides support, strength and shape to the plant.
2. Xylem parenchyma is also a conducting tissue as it helps to conduct water and dissolve mineral salts from the roots to the leaves.




PHLOEM TISSUES

The phloem tissues are closely associated with the major supporting tissues. The tissues are located within the vascular bundles of all plants, be it in the roots, stems or leaves
The structure of the Phloem tissues are made up of four cells. These are sieve tubes, Phloem parenchyma, companion cells and Phloem fibres


i.

SIEVE TUBES:

these are made up of elongated rows of cylindrical cells arranged vertically. The cells are living and mainly conducts food
ii.

PHLOEM PARENCHYMA:

these are similar to the parenchyma cells earlier discussed. They provides strength and support to the plant. The cells also helps in food storage
iii.

PHLOEM FIBRES: these are special cells which are concerned with the strenghtening of the organs in which they are found
iv.

COMPANION CELLS:

they are small and short cells which are vertically elongated like the sieve tube. They assist in the conduction of food substances

FUNCTIONS OF THE PHLOEM TISSUES

i. The general function of the phloem tissues is to conduct manufactured food from the area of synthesis to the Areas where they are mainly needed.
ii. Secondly, the Phloem tissues assists to provide support to the entire plant

NOTE

The vascular tissues which is the xylem and phloem tissues, are found mainly in the roots, stems, and leaves of plants



MECHANISMS OF SUPPORT IN PLANTS

The entire body of plants, either internal or external, provides the necessary support to plants. The knowledge of the internal structure of the leaves, stem and roots will assist in the understanding of the mechanisms of support in plants

1.

EPIDERMIS OR THE PILIFEROUS LAYER

The epidermis is the outer covering of the leaves and stem while that of the roots is called piliferous layer.
The epidermal layer is one-cell thick.
Their function is mainly protection. They prevent the inner cells from injury, infection and loss of water. In some cases only the guard cells of the leaves that has chloroplast are the only cells that can carry out photosynthesis.
2.

CORTEX

The Cortex is mainly found between the epidermis and the vascular bundles of the dicotyledonous stem. The cortex is made up of three tissues which are collenchyma-the outside, parenchyma-the middle and endodermis-the inner

THE PARENCHYMA

is about three or four cells thick.
The parenchyma is made of large, thin-walled cells with many air spaces. Both cells provides strength and support.

THE ENDODERMIS

is a single layer cell which is often regarded as the starch sheath.
It stores starch hence when stained with iodine solution will always turn blue black.


SCLERENCHYMA

This layer is found on the outer part of vascular bundles. It consists of dead, lignifies cells. It aids to strengthen the stem

VASCULAR BUNDLES

Vascular bundles are found in the inner parts of the stem. It consist of xylem, phloem and cambium

XYLEM
Xylem is responsible for the conduct of water and dissolved mineral salts from the soil to the roots through the roots and stem.


PHLOEM
Phloem is responsible for the transportation or conduct of manufactured food from the areas of synthesis to the where they are needed within the plant.







CAMBIUM

Cambium which almost look like the bone marrow in animals is found between the xylem and the phloem. The cambium cells are constantly dividing cells which are called secondary thickening and is responsible for the increase in size of the stem of so many trees.


PITH

The pith is the central part of the stem. It is large and is made of the parenchyma and extends between the vascular tissues.
In flowering plants, strength and rigidity are achieved by a combination of tugor pressure and supporting tissues. The parenchyma cells of the Pith when fully turgid, push outside and this force is restrained by the inelastic epidermis

Hence when the cells of the parenchyma tissues are fully expanded, with water-turgid, they give rigidity and strength otherwise known as HYDROSTATIC SUPPORT

In the vascular bundles, the xylem vessels and fibres which are lignified, adds mechanical strength to the stems and roots of the plant.

The function of the cambium,

which contributes to the growth of trees trunks in width, provides the necessary support and strength to plants.
The wood fibres generally make stems strong and rigid. Other supporting tissues such as the parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma provides necessary strength needed by plants.



USES OF FIBRES TO PLANTS


Sclerenchyma fibres known simply as fibres provides flexibility and strength.
Two of the special function of the fibres in plants.
The fibres gives mechanical functions that is the necessary strength, rigidity, flexibility and elasticity to the plant body and also enables it to withstand various strains.
plants like Hibiscus, jute and sisal are known to contain some of the strongest plant fibres hence they are making ropes, mats, clothes and sacks.


WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE SUPPORTING TISSUES IN PLANTS?


The supporting tissues in plants provides the following function in plants
1. Strengthening
2. Rigidity
3. Resilience and flexibility
4. Protection
5. Distinct shape and
6. Conduction



How is support provided for in Herbaceous and woody plants?

i. By turgidity, water is preserved
ii. Due to the presence of water, vacuoles inside the parenchyma cells/living cells
iii. Thickening of the walls of collenchyma cells

WOODY PLANTS

I. Sclerenchyma in the Cortex
II. By the xylem strengthened the deposited ligning in their walls
III. Secondary growth provides extensive xylem and bark

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